Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) during pregnancy is an obstetric emergency associated with morbidity and mortality. As this condition is rare (affecting 1-3% pregnant women with preexisting diabetes) , available data are limited. The aim of this retrospective cohort study is to present comprehensive data on maternal characteristics and pregnancy outcomes for women with DKA who attended our center for prenatal care from 2001-21. In total 71 DKA episodes were identified in 58 women, of whom 86% (n=50) had type 1 diabetes mellitus and 83% (n=48) were White. The mean (±SD) maternal age was 28 (±7) years and diabetes duration was (±7) years. Pregnancy loss during or within 1 week of the DKA episode occurred in 17% (6 miscarriages and 4 stillbirths) . There were no maternal deaths. Women were poorly prepared for pregnancy [mean 1st trimester HbA1c 9.3 (±2.5) %]. Social stressors were present in 52% (n=30) and 24% (n=14) reported smoking. The mean gestational age at DKA was 25.4 weeks (16.3 weeks for pregnancies with fetal demise vs. 27.5 weeks for livebirths, p<0.001) . Insulin non-adherence was the most common precipitating factor (40%) , followed by infection (23%) , and a new diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (10%) . Pre-existing hyperemesis was associated with fetal demise (31%, n=4 vs. 3%, n=2 among livebirths; p=0.004) . The mean plasma glucose at presentation was 362 mg/dL and the β-hydroxybutyrate was 4.2 mmol/L, with 28 (39%) women requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Among livebirths, the mean gestational age at delivery was 32.7 weeks with 41% (n=21) requiring emergency cesarean. Large for gestational age occurred in 29% (n=17) and 8% (n=4) had shoulder dystocia. Congenital anomaly was present in 10% (n=5) . Neonatal hypoglycemia occurred in 60% (n=29) and neonatal ICU admission was required in 52% (n=25) .
In summary, pregnancies affected by DKA continue to be associated with numerous adverse pregnancy outcomes. Future work should focus on optimizing prevention strategies in high-risk women.
M.Dhanasekaran: None. S.Mohan: None. D.Erickson: None. P.Shah: None. L.M.Szymanski: None. A.Vella: Advisory Panel; Crinetics Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Rezolute, Inc., vTv Therapeutics, Zealand Pharma A/S, Other Relationship; Novo Nordisk. A.M.Egan: None.
National Institutes of Health (K12 HD065987/HD/NICHD)