Background: Persons with diabetes have a high risk of complications related to the micro- and macrovascular circulation. One of the pathological processes involved in these complications is the onset of abnormal extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling in different organs, leading to fibrosis. The quantification of ECM remodeling may identify patients that are at higher risk for adverse outcomes.
Method: We measured biomarkers of collagen type III (PRO-C3) and VI (PRO-C6) formation and MMP-mediated degradation of type I (C1M) , III (C3M) , and IV (C4M and Tumstatin; TUM) in serum from 267 persons with T2DM from the CMR in T2DM study (NCT02684331) . Myocardial fibrosis (LGE) and ECV were determined by gadolinium-contrast CMR. Serum samples from 79 healthy controls were measured for comparison.
Results: Levels of all biomarkers were significantly elevated in persons with T2DM compared to healthy controls (all P<0.0001) . Some of the markers were associated with complications, PRO-C6 levels were: significantly elevated in patients with hypertension compared to persons without known CVD (P<0.0001) ; could discriminate patients with CKD - eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2 with an AUC of 0.83 (P<0.001) ; were significantly increased in patients with ischemic LGE (P<0.05) , suggesting an association of PRO-C6 with fibrosis; and in a multiple linear regression analysis, higher PRO-C6 levels were significantly associated with higher HbA1c (r=0.15, P=0.0397) , lower eGFR (r=−0.41, P<0.0001) , higher proANP (r=0.24, P=0.0005) , and higher ECV (r=0.24, P=0.0006) . PRO-C3 levels were significantly elevated in patients with CKD compared to non-CKD, and levels of C3M and C4M increased significantly with presence of albuminuria.
Conclusion: Biomarkers of ECM remodeling, particularly PRO-C6, may identify persons with active pro-fibrotic processes at risk for complications related to T2DM. The potential of the biomarkers to predict adverse outcomes will be investigated once follow-up data have been collected.
A.Møller: None. A.S.Bojer: None. F.Genovese: Employee; Nordic Bioscience A/S, Stock/Shareholder; Nordic Bioscience A/S. M.H.Sørensen: None. P.Gæde: Advisory Panel; AstraZeneca, Research Support; Novo Nordisk. M.A.Karsdal: Employee; Nordic Bioscience A/S, Nordic Bioscience A/S, Nordic Bioscience A/S. P.L.Madsen: None. D.G.Rasmussen: Employee; Nordic Bioscience A/S.