Background: In patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) negative for glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA-) , the prognostic significance of insulin deficiency (ID) and insulin resistance (IR) remained uncertain.

Methods: In 4590 patients with T2D consecutively enrolled to the Hong Kong Diabetes Register in 1995-2012 followed up till 2019, we measured GADA and fasting C peptide (CP) in stored samples at baseline. Using the updated homeostasis model assessment (HOMA2) , we defined below-median HOMA2-%B as ID and above-median HOMA2-IR as IR. We defined incident insulin use as the first insulin prescription of at least 28 days and used ICD-9 codes to define cardiovascular-renal diseases, severe hypoglycemia event (SHE) and all-cause mortality. We used Cox regression model to examine the associations between HOMA2 and clinical outcomes.

Results: Amongst 3198 GADA- patients with available HOMA2 data, the median of HOMA2-%B was 52.4 (33.1, 60.9) and that of HOMA2-IR was 1.6 (1.1, 1.8) . The ID group was more likely to initiate insulin treatment [adjusted HR (95%CI) 1.26 (1.11-1.42) ] but less likely to progress to chronic kidney disease (CKD) , end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and all-cause mortality than the non-ID group. The IR group had increased risks of incident insulin therapy [HR 1.13 (1.00-1.27) ], CKD, ESKD, and all-cause mortality than the non-IR group. Compared with the ID-/IR- group, the ID/IR group had the highest hazard of incident insulin use [HR 1.59 (1.30, 1.94) ], SHE and cardiovascular-renal diseases with HRs ranging from 1.45 to 2.09, although the associations for complications became insignificant after adjusting for metabolic factors and baseline treatments.

Conclusions: In GADA- patients with T2D, ID and IR contributed differently to clinical outcomes with the co-existence of ID and IR associated with the highest risk of insulin requirement and adverse clinical outcomes. The assessment of ID and IR using HOMA2 improved risk stratification to identify high risk people for individualized intervention.


B.Fan: None. A.Luk: None. J.C.Chan: Board Member; Asia Diabetes Foundation, Consultant; Bayer AG, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Celltrion, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Roche Diabetes Care, Viatris Inc., Research Support; Applied Therapeutics, AstraZeneca, Eli Lilly and Company, Hua Medicine, Servier Laboratories, Stock/Shareholder; GemVCare Ltd. E.S.H.Lau: None. H.Wu: None. M.Shi: None. A.Yang: None. C.K.Lim: None. A.P.Kong: Advisory Panel; Abbott, Kyowa Kirin Co., Ltd., Other Relationship; AstraZeneca, Novo Nordisk, Research Support; Boehringer Ingelheim, Speaker's Bureau; AstraZeneca, Bayer, Eli Lilly and Company, Sanofi, Stock/Shareholder; Aptorum Group Limited. E.Chow: Research Support; Hua Medicine, Medtronic, Powder Pharmaceuticals Inc., Speaker's Bureau; Novartis AG, Sanofi. R.C.Ma: Other Relationship; Bayer AG, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Research Support; AstraZeneca, Bayer AG, Novo Nordisk A/S, Pfizer Inc., Tricida, Inc.


The HKG Health Medical and Research Fund and RGC Research Impact Fund

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