Background: HbA1c has been associated with COVID-poor outcomes in diabetic and non-diabetic populations, while patients living in census tracts with high levels of social vulnerability [measured using the CDC’s Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) ] have experienced poorer outcomes.
Objective: To examine associations between HbA1c, area level social vulnerability and poor COVID outcomes in patients who tested positive for COVID and were captured in the electronic medical record (EMR) at a large academic institution in the Southeastern United States.
Methods: HbA1c and SVI, collected up to 3 years prior to a positive COVID test, were extracted from the EMR. HbA1c and SVI were compared by poor outcome status [hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and mortality]. Bayesian logistic regression was used to examine associations between HbA1c [≤5.7%; 5.7%-<6.5%; and ≥6.5%], SVI [living in high SVI census tract vs low SVI tract] and each COVID outcome separately. Multivariable models were adjusted for sex, age, race, body mass index and diabetes status. Results presented as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) .
Results: N=3,7patients were identified [mean age: 54 years (SD 16.3) , 60% female, 47% Black]. Patients with HbA1c ≥ 6.5% and those living in a high SVI census tract were more likely to experience a poor COVID outcome (p’s<0.0001) . In multivariable models, patients with HbA1c ≥ 6.5% had higher odds of hospitalization (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.44-2.22) ; ICU admission (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.78-2.55) ; and mortality (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.12-2.28) . Patients living in a high SVI census tract had higher odds of hospitalization (OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.94-3.15) ; ICU admission (OR 2.58, 95% CI 2.12-3.14) ; and mortality (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.39-3.09) .
Conclusion: HbA1c ≥6.5% and living in a census tract with high social vulnerability were independently associated with poor COVID-outcomes. Findings highlight the need to assess HbA1c and area level social determinants in the context of COVID.
C.R.Howell: None. L.Zhang: None. S.Williams: None. N.Yi: None. W.Garvey: Other Relationship; Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Eli Lilly and Company, Epitomee, JAZZ Pharmaceuticals, Novo Nordisk, Novo Nordisk, Pfizer Inc., Pfizer Inc. A.Cherrington: Consultant; Bayer AG, Other Relationship; Novo Nordisk.
This work was supported by funding from the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (U54MD008176) .