Modeling the course of C-peptide decline in autoantibody (Ab) positive individuals is important for type 1 diabetes (T1D) prediction and implementation of T1D prevention trials. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in TCF7L2, JAZF1, SLC30A8, INS, PTPRK, G6CP2, CLEC16, PTPN22 and HLA genes are associated with persistent C-peptide at or after T1D diagnosis. We sought to determine whether 12 SNPs in these genes and the T1D genetic risk score-2 (GRS2) can predict C-peptide trajectory before diagnosis of T1D. We studied Ab positive at-risk participants in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention Study who had ImmunoChip data (N=1217, age at initial screen (mean±SD) 16.1±12.7 years, 51.5% female, 81.0% non-Hispanic white) . Over a mean follow up of 3.4±2. years, 255 (21.0%) developed multiple Ab and 336 (27.6%) developed clinical T1D. We analyzed the influence of these 12 SNPs and the T1D GRS2 on C-peptide AUC during progression from single to multiple Abs, from single Ab to clinical T1D, and from multiple Abs to clinical T1D. Analyses were adjusted for baseline C-peptide AUC, age, glucose AUC, BMI Z-score and HbA1c; the presence of high-risk HLA haplotypes (DR3 and DR4-DQ8) ; and the first 3 principal components. The type 2 diabetes (T2D) -associated TCF7L2 rs7901695 and rs4506565 SNPs were significantly associated with higher C-peptide AUC during progression from multiple Abs to T1D (p<0.04) and neared significance for the single-to-multiple Ab transition (p=0.05) . Additionally, lower T1D GRS2 was significantly associated with higher C-peptide AUC during progression from multiple Abs to T1D (p=0.01) . We observed trend associations of lower C-peptide AUC with JAZF1 SNP rs864745 in both single Ab-to-T1D and multiple Ab-to-T1D progression (both p=0.06) , and with SNPs in SLC30A8 and INS in multiple Abs to T1D (p=0.and 0.08, respectively) .

In conclusion, T2D-associated SNPs in the TCF7L2 gene and lower T1D GRS2 predict higher C-peptide particularly in progression from multiple Abs to clinical T1D.


T.M.Triolo: None. M.J.Redondo: Advisory Panel; Provention Bio, Inc. H.M.Parikh: None. M.Tosur: Advisory Panel; Provention Bio, Inc. P.Gottlieb: Advisory Panel; Janssen Research & Development, LLC, ViaCyte, Inc., Other Relationship; IM Therapeutics, Research Support; Caladrius Biosciences, Inc., Immune Tolerance Network, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Novo Nordisk, Precigen, Inc., Tolerion, Inc. R.A.Oram: Consultant; Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Research Support; Randox R & D. S.Onengut-gumuscu: None. J.Krischer: None. S.S.Rich: None. A.Steck: None.


NIH K12 DK094712NIH RDK121843NIH RDK124395

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