Introduction: Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a monogenic nonimmune type of diabetes mellitus. It is rare and sometimes misdiagnosed as type 1 or type 2 diabetes (T2DM) . The age of onset is usually below 25 years. It is more common in the European population. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha (HNF1A) is one of the most common mutations and is associated with cardiovascular and renal complications.1 Genetic testing in patients with strong hereditary factors results in definitive diagnosis and subsequent appropriate treatment.2 The aim of this report is to emphasize the importance of distinguishing MODY by considering the family history of diabetes and relative clinical features.
Case presentation: A 58-year-old Filipino woman was diagnosed with T2DM at age 15. Her mother, 5 of 8 siblings and her daughter all had diabetes. They all died in the 2nd or 3rd decades of their life due to diabetes complications. Her grandfather was European. She has renal insufficiency, coronary heart disease and heart failure. Treatment included glimepiride 2 mg daily and sitagliptin 25 mg daily. The physical exam was unremarkable. Body mass index (BMI) was 21. GAD 65 antibody and Islet cell antibody were negative, C peptide: 3.6 ng/mL, blood sugar: 1mg/dL, HbA1c: 7.3%, creatinine: 2.15 mg/dL and GFR: 25 mL/min/1.73m2. A diagnosis of MODY was considered due to strong family history of diabetes, young age at the onset of diabetes and normal BMI. DNA sequencing demonstrated positive HNF1A mutation compatible with HNF1A-MODY. Due to post prandial hyperglycemia, glimepiride was replaced with pre-meal lispro.
Conclusion: This is a rare case of HNF1A-MODY found in a Filipino patient. MODY should be included in the differential diagnosis of diabetic patients with an extensive family history of diabetes, young age of onset of diabetes and negative pancreatic antibodies. Early diagnosis with genetic profiling can guide therapy and hopefully decrease the vascular complications of long-term poor glycemic control.
S.Velayati: None. M.Shanik: Consultant; Bigfoot Biomedical, Inc., Proteomics International, Research Support; Better Therapeutics, Speaker's Bureau; Abbott, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Novo Nordisk, Xeris Pharmaceuticals, Inc. I.J.Romao: None.