Hypersecretion of amylin, a β-cell hormone that regulates satiation, is common in individuals with prediabetes and is associated with pancreatic amyloid deposition and type-2 diabetes. Evidence has emerged that increased circulating levels of amyloid-forming human amylin may potentially impair brain function. Because mouse amylin is non-amyloidogenic, we generated transgenic mice with conditional pancreatic expression of amyloid-forming human amylin to study how in vivo knockdown of human amylin expression influences brain function during the development of type-2 diabetes. Males and females were fed a high-fat diet starting at 3 months of age to induce amylin hypersecretion and glucose dysregulation. Males developed hyperglycemia at 5 months of age, whereas females showed glucose dysregulation 3-4 months later. At 5 months of age, human amylin-expressing male mice were randomly assigned to either amylin downregulation (by peritoneal tamoxifen injection) or control (maintained amylin expression) groups (n = 10/group) . Two months later, we assessed brain function with a novel object recognition test and performed comparative non-targeted metabolomics and global RNA-seq analyses of hippocampal tissue. Mice with downregulated human amylin showed enhanced recognition memory index (p < 0.001) and lower blood glucose levels (p < 0.001) compared to those that continued to express human amylin. This was associated with increased hippocampal levels of glycolysis metabolites, including lactic acid (p < 0.01) , glucose-6-phosphate (p = 0.06) , and fructose (p = 0.07) . Hippocampal gene-expression patterns between the two mouse groups revealed extensive compensatory changes in gene expression related to glucose metabolism.
In conclusion, amylin downregulation in diabetic mice improves systemic glucose homeostasis and memory. Molecular processes associated with improved memory involve increased hippocampal glycolytic fluxes and compensatory gene expression.
V.Gopal viswanathan: None. M.Muehlbauer: None. J.R.Bain: Other Relationship; CardioEphEx, LLC. F.Despa: None. N.Verma: None. E.D.Winford: None. D.Kotiya: None. L.E.Radulescu: None. N.Leibold: None. K.C.Chen: None. S.Despa: None. D.A.Hill: None.
National Institutes of Health NS116058, AG057290, AG053999