FoxO1 is a major target of insulin action and regulates expression of ATGL and its inhibitor, G0S2, in the liver (Cell Rep 15:349, 2016) . Here, we asked whether ATGL mediates effects of FoxO1 in liver-specific insulin receptor knockout (LIRKO) mice. Studies in LIRKO and IR/FoxO1 double knockout (LIRFKO) mice show ATGL expression is increased and G0S2 is suppressed in a FoxO1-dependent fashion when insulin signaling is disrupted in the liver. ATGL knockdown (KD) reduces high plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, HOMA-IR and fatty acid oxidation, and improves glucose tolerance in LIRKO mice. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies show ATGL KD improves insulin sensitivity due to effects on both HGP and glucose utilization, reflecting changes in WAT lipolysis, BAT metabolism and hepatic gene expression. The expression of FoxO1-regulated gluconeogenic genes (PEPCK, G6Pase, PCO, PGC-1α) , hepatokines (e.g., follistatin) and IGFBP-1 is increased in LIRKO mice and reduced by ATGL KD, reflecting changes in acetylation of FoxO1 and its co-activator, PGC-1α (decreased in LIRKO, increased by ATGL KD) . Rictor acetylation, which promotes activation of Akt and phosphorylation of FoxO1, also is increased by ATGL KD in LIRKO mice and isolated hepatocytes. Since ATGL promotes activation of Sirt1 (Mol Cell 77:810, 2020) and Sirt1 deacetylates FoxO1, PGC-1α and rictor, these studies suggest FoxO1 promotes increased ATGL and Sirt1 activity, and that Sirt1 activation enhances the effects of FoxO1 on gene expression and glucose homeostasis in a feed forward fashion (FoxO1 -> ATGL -> Sirt1 -> FoxO1) . Targeting the FoxO1/ATGL/Sirt1 pathway may provide a useful strategy for improving glucose homeostasis when insulin signaling is impaired in the liver.
I.O-sullivan: None. S.Bhattacharyya: None. C.Liew: None. S.M.Lee: None. J.Cordoba-chacon: None. R.J.Perry: None. G.I.Shulman: Advisory Panel; 89bio, Inc., AstraZeneca, Equator Therapeutics, Inc., Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Merck & Co., Inc., Consultant; DiCerna Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Novo Nordisk, Other Relationship; Generian Pharmaceuticals, iMetabolic Biopharma Corporation, Maze Therapeutics, The Liver Company, Stock/Shareholder; Levels Health, Inc. . T.Unterman: None.
Department of Veterans Affairs (5I01BX001968)