Although intake of both vegetables and fruits is known to be negatively associated with obesity in people with and without diabetes, the combined effects of these two food groups including cut-off values for intake have yet to be determined. We investigated the association according to combinations of the amount of fruit and vegetable intake determined by a food frequency questionnaire among 1579 patients with type 2 diabetes (990 men, mean age 50y) registered in the Japan Diabetes Clinical Data Management Study. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate multi-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for obesity (BMI ≥25) . Intake of fruits and vegetables was analyzed according to quintiles. Patients in the top quintile of fruit intake (≥150g) and the top three quintiles of vegetable intake (>200g) were significantly less obese than those in the bottom quintiles. In patients above/ below the thresholds for intake of fruits and vegetables, ORs for obesity for daily fruit intake of ≥150g and for daily vegetable intake >200g vs. lower amounts significantly decreased to 0.64 (95%CI: 0.50-0.82) and 0.55 (0.44-0.68) , respectively. In addition, ORs for 4 groups of combinations of intake of vegetables and fruits above and below the threshold were calculated. The ORs were significantly reduced regardless of the amount of fruit intake if vegetable intake was >200g. ORs further decreased significantly when fruit intake was ≥150g and that of vegetables was >200g. However, when vegetable intake was <200g, the OR did not decrease significantly even if fruit intake was high. There was a significant decrease of 0.39 (0.28-0.53) in the OR in the group with more of both dietary fruits and vegetables compared to the group with lower amounts of both. These results showed that in Japanese people with type 2 diabetes >200g of vegetables per day is essential to avoid obesity regardless of the amount of fruit consumed. However, an additional effect on body weight could be expected with simultaneous fruit intake ≥150g.


M.Takeuchi: None. K.Fujihara: None. H.Sone: Research Support; Astellas Pharma Inc., Eisai Co., Ltd., Kyowa Kirin Co., Ltd., Novo Nordisk, Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Taisho Pharmaceutical Holdings Co., Ltd., Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited. M.Hatta: None. C.Horikawa: None. Y.Takeda: None. N.Kato: n/a. M.Kato: None. H.Yokoyama: None. T.Saito: None. H.Maegawa: None.

Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. More information is available at