Background: Diabetes is a key risk factor for severe COVID-19 (i.e., hospitalization, mortality) . Whether diabetes is also a risk factor for post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) , also known as long COVID, is unknown.

Methods: We conducted a scoping literature review on January 27, 2022 using the keyword terms ‘long hauler’, ‘long COVID-19’, ‘post-acute sequalae’, and ‘persistent COVID-19’ combined with the operator OR, with AND ‘diabetes’, AND ‘COVID-19 [MeSH Term]’. We included all peer-reviewed full-text observational research studies published in English between January 1, 2020 and January 27, 2022 that reported on the risk of PASC in people with and without diabetes with a minimum of 4-weeks follow-up after COVID-19 diagnosis, and narratively synthesized results.

Results: Among 39 studies identified, seven were included in the review and are summarized in Table 1. Overall, we found that 43% of studies identified diabetes as a potent risk factor for PASC (all odds ratios were >4) . However, this conclusion is limited by the heterogeneity of studies with regard to PASC definitions (e.g., ongoing symptoms of fatigue, cough, dyspnea etc.) , populations at risk (hospitalized vs. non-hospitalized populations) , and follow-up times (range 4 weeks to 7 months) .

Conclusions: More high-quality studies across multiple populations and settings are needed to determine if diabetes is indeed a risk factor for PASC. In the meantime, careful monitoring of people with diabetes for development of PASC may be advised.


J. L. Harding: None. M. K. Ali: Advisory Panel; Bayer AG, Research Support; Merck & Co., Inc. J. C. Gander: None. R. E. Patzer: None.

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