The goal of this mechanistic trial was to determine the kidney and cardiovascular effects of combined treatment with an SGLT2i (empagliflozin 25mg QD) and an ACEi (ramipril 10mg QD) for 4 weeks in patients at risk of renal hyperfiltration.

In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial, measurements were obtained following each of the 4 treatment phases: 1) no treatment, 2) 4-week ramipril treatment alone, 3) 4-week empagliflozin-ramipril combination treatment, and 4) 4-week placebo-ramipril combination treatment. The primary endpoint was GFR after empagliflozin-ramipril treatment compared to placebo-ramipril. At the end of each study phase the following measurements were performed under clamped euglycemia (4-6 mmol/L) : inulin (GFR) and paraaminohippurate (effective renal plasma flow, ERPF) clearances, tubular sodium handling, ambulatory blood pressure, arterial stiffness, heart rate variability, non-invasive cardiac output monitoring, plasma and urine biochemistry.

Empagliflozin-ramipril treatment resulted in an 8ml/min/1.73m2 lower GFR (p=0.0061) , lower absolute proximal fluid reabsorption rate (p=0.0092) , lower absolute proximal sodium reabsorption rate (p=0.0056) , and lower urinary 8-isoprostane (p=0.0084) relative to placebo-ramipril treatment. Empagliflozin-ramipril treatment resulted in additive blood pressure lowering effects (SBP p=0.0112; DBP p=0.0032) and a lower total peripheral resistance (p=0.0368) . There were no other significant changes observed with the addition of empagliflozin.

SGLT2i-ACEi combination treatment resulted in an expected GFR “dip”, suppression of oxidative stress markers, and additive declines in blood pressure and total peripheral resistance in this mechanistic study. These changes are consistent with a protective physiological profile characterized by the lowering of intraglomerular pressure and related cardiorenal risk when adding an SGLT2i to conservative therapy.


Y. Lytvyn: None. K. Kimura: Employee; 3Boehringer Ingelheim Canada Ltd./Ltée. N. Peter: Employee; Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co.KG. V.S. Lai: Advisory Panel; Baxter. J. Tse: None. L. Cham: None. B.A. Perkins: Advisory Panel; Abbott Diabetes, Insulet Corporation, Sanofi. Board Member; Novo Nordisk. Research Support; BMO Bank of Montreal, Novo Nordisk. Other Relationship; Abbott Diabetes, Insulet Corporation, Medtronic, Novo Nordisk. N. Soleymanlou: Employee; Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals Inc., Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals Inc. D. Cherney: Research Support; Boehringer Ingelheim-Lilly, Merck, Janssen, Sanofi, AstraZeneca and Novo-Nordisk. Other Relationship; AbbVie Inc., AstraZeneca, Bayer AG, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Lilly, Maze, BMS, CSL-Behring, Merck, Otsuka, Novartis and Novo-Nordisk, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, Sanofi.


Boehringer Ingelheim and CIHR, Diabetes Canada and the Heart and Stroke Richard Lewar Centre of Excellence and the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada

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