Background: Time restricted eating (TRE) and Low Carbohydrate Diets (LCD) have become popular dietary patterns with potential metabolic benefits for T2DM patients. The objective of this study is to evaluate TRE on glucose control compared to LCD for individuals with T2DM after completing a 72 hour medically supervised induction fast.
Methods: Participants completed a 72 hour medically supervised induction fast and were randomized to TRE (n=14, 8-hour daily feeding period) or LCD (n=10, <45 grams total per day) for 4 weeks. Blood glucose was captured by FreeStyle Libre pro continuous glucose monitors (CGM) . GMI at 1 month post fast was compared to A1C values measured within 6 months prior to treatment.
Results: A total of 24 participants completed the protocol (mean age = 53.9, range 35-72) . GMI was reduced from 8.99% to 7.30% (p=0.002) in TRE and 7.99% to 6.77% in LCD (p=0.001) . Reductions in GMI range were greater in the first 2 weeks compared to last 2 weeks. The TRE group spent less time within the target range (67.7% vs. 74.8%, p=0.32) , more time hyperglycemic (29.4% vs. 21.0% p=0.25) , and less time hypoglycemic (2.8% vs. 4.2%, p=0.42) . Hypoglycemia was numerically less common in the TRE group (3/14 participants) compared to the LCD (6/participants) in CGM data beyond the induction fast. Glucose variability was similar in TRE (28.6%) and LCD (28.2%) . There were no SAEs experienced in either group. When surveyed, participants believed TRE and LCD were realistic nutritional therapies.
Conclusion: These results suggest that both TRE and LCD supplemented by a medically supervised induction fast are efficacious and safe nutritional therapies to improve blood glucose in patients with T2DM. The participants will be followed for 12 months to analyze long-term effects.
A.Carbonel: None. E.Velis: None. T.L.Calinawan: None. R.Kiwan: None. C.Smith: None. C.Svid: None. J.H.Shubrook: Consultant; Abbott, AstraZeneca, Bayer AG, Eli Lilly and Company, Novo Nordisk.