Objective: To evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of 3 ready-to-use glucagon treatments for severe hypoglycemia in adults and children with diabetes: Baqsimi (nasal glucagon) , Gvoke (glucagon injection) , and Zegalogue (dasiglucagon injection) .
Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted to identify randomized clinical trials assessing the efficacy and safety of ready-to-use glucagon vs. reconstituted injectable glucagon. Bayesian fixed-effect network meta-analysis was used to perform the ITC of Gvoke and Zegalogue vs. Baqsimi. Endpoints included the proportion of participants achieving treatment success, maximum blood glucose, and treatment-emergent adverse events. Mean time to treatment success and to maximum blood glucose were also analyzed for Gvoke vs. Baqsimi, but not for Zegalogue due to reporting differences (mean vs. median) .
Results and Conclusion: Ten trials were included in the ITC, including 4 for Baqsimi, 3 for Gvoke, and 3 for Zegalogue. Baqsimi had comparable efficacy with Gvoke and with Zegalogue (Table) , and all 3 treatments achieved high treatment success (>98%) in adults and children with diabetes. In adults, results from the combined T1D and T2D analysis were consistent with the T1D analysis, except a statistically significant faster time achieving treatment success observed for Baqsimi vs. Gvoke in the combined analysis.
M. Gimenez: Advisory Panel; Eli Lilly and Company, Medtronic, Novo Nordisk, Sanofi. Speaker's Bureau; AstraZeneca, Eli Lilly and Company, Novo Nordisk, Sanofi. K. Khunti: Consultant; Abbott, Amgen Inc., AstraZeneca, Bayer AG, Berlin-Chemie AG, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Lilly, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Napp Pharmaceuticals Limited, Novartis AG, Novo Nordisk, Roche Diabetes Care, Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbH, Servier Laboratories. Research Support; AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Lilly, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Novartis AG, Novo Nordisk, Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbH. K. Syring: Employee; Eli Lilly and Company. L.A. Baker: None. R.J. Threlkeld: Employee; Lilly Diabetes. Y. Yan: Employee; Eli Lilly and Company. M. Matsuhisa: Research Support; Nissui, Sysmex Corp. Speaker's Bureau; Astellas Pharma Inc., Eli Lilly and Company, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, Novo Nordisk, Sanofi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma Co., Ltd., Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited.
Funded by Eli Lilly and Company.