Introduction: The difference between bedtime and morning glucose levels (BeAM value) is a clinically relevant measure that can guide clinicians regarding insulin titrations. As chronic kidney disease (CKD) develops, changes in insulin sensitivity and kinetics and limitations to available medications may contribute to over-basalization, insufficient prandial control, and large BeAM. We hypothesized that CKD and less time in range (TIR) derived from continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) are associated with large BeAM in T2DM.

Methods: This was a prospective observational cohort study of 1people with T2DM treated with insulin or sulfonylurea, 81 participants with CKD (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2) , and 24 controls with eGFR ≥60 frequency matched on age, duration of diabetes, HbA1c, and glucose-lowering medications. Each participant wore a CGM for two 6-day periods. BeAM was calculated as the difference between mean bedtime sensor glucose values and mean morning sensor values, with large BeAM defined as ≥30 mg/dL glucose drop from bedtime to morning.

Results: Participants had a mean age of 68 years, diabetes duration years and HbA1c 7.7%. CKD and controls had a mean eGFR 38 and 83 mL/min/1.73 m2 respectively. Median (IQR) BeAM was 29 (9-52) mg/dL for participants with CKD and (-4-31) mg/dL for controls (p = 0.11) . Forty participants with CKD (49%) and 7 controls (29%) had a large BeAM. Those with a large BeAM had less TIR (58 v 68%) , higher HbA1c (8.0 vs. 7.5%) , and higher glucose management indicator (GMI, 7.5 vs. 7.2%) compared to those with BeAM <30 mg/dL (each p<0.05, adjusting for age, sex, and race) . Coefficient of variation, diabetes duration, and insulin dose (total or basal) did not correlate with BeAM.

Conclusions: Large BeAM was common among participants with long-standing T2DM and CKD and was associated with less TIR and higher GMI. These data suggest that there is opportunity for improvement in daytime and prandial diabetes management among patients with CKD.


L.Mayeda: None. L.Zelnick: None. S.Trikudanathan: Research Support; Bionic pancreas, Bionic pancreas , Insulet Corporation, Insulet Corporation. I.B.Hirsch: Consultant; Abbott Diabetes, Bigfoot Biomedical, Inc., GWave, Roche Diabetes Care, Research Support; Beta Bionics, Inc., Insulet Corporation, Medtronic. I.De boer: Advisory Panel; AstraZeneca, Bayer AG, Cyclerion Therapeutics, Inc., George Clinical, Goldfinch Bio, Inc., Other Relationship; American Society of Nephrology, Research Support; Dexcom, Inc.


American Diabetes Association (4-15-CKD-20) ; National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (R01DK088762, R01087726)

Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. More information is available at