Aim: GFR and urine albumin excretion (UAE) are prevailing measures used to detect and monitor diabetic nephropathy (DN) . We tested whether serum kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR1) , markers of DN progression, are associated with DN renal structural parameters in persons with TIDM.
Methods: We measured KIM-1 and TFNR1 in 285 participants from the Renin Angiotensin System Study (RASS) . Participants had T1DM for 2-20 yrs and were free of any clinical DN. Baseline iGFR and kidney biopsies were obtained. We used linear regression to estimate cross-sectional associations of markers with renal structural measures.
Results: Mean age was 30 ± yrs; mean iGFR was 125 ± 18 ml/min/1.73 m2; median UAE was 5 (IQR 4- 7) . Higher KIM-1 was associated with significantly greater mesangial fraction volume [Vv (Mes/glom) ] and the tubular atrophy (table 1) . Higher TNFR1 was associated with significantly higher Vv (Mes/glom) and glomerular basement membrane (GBM) width. Neither iGFR nor UAE were significantly associated with lesions.
Conclusion: Serum KIM-1 and TNFR1 were associated with higher values for Vv (Mes/glom) , GBM, and tubular atrophy in persons with T1DM and normal kidney function, suggesting relevance as markers of early DN structural changes prior to UAE elevation or GFR decline. KIM-1 is specific to the tubules, highlighting the importance of characterizing the natural history of tubular functions in DN.
F.Tian: None. D.Prince: None. A.Doria: Research Support; Novo Nordisk Foundation. M.Mauer: None. B.Kestenbaum: Consultant; Reata Pharmaceuticals, Inc.