While the Type 1 Diabetes Exchange data noted that diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is more common in those utilizing injection regimens than insulin pumps, DKA remains a risk for pump users, as it can precipitously develop if insulin infusion is interrupted. We sought to obtain more recent DKA admission data in T1D youth using insulin pumps and the impact of CGM on DKA rates.

Methods: We characterized DKA data in insulin pump users from episodes between 12/20 and 6/2021 in an academic pediatric endocrine practice in which 68% were pump users.

Results: Among 591 pump patients aged <25 years (y) , 28 events occurred (3.16 events per 100 patient-y. Mean age was 13.6±3.4y; 85.7% were 12-19y old. More events were in males (60.7%) , 53.6% were white, 71.4% non-Hispanic. Mean HbA1c was 10.22.3%, diabetes duration 6.1±4.0y, and 57.1% used CGM; 28.6% of patients were new to pump therapy (<1y) .Admission pH levels ranged between 7.0-7.31, with 28.6% of events classified as “moderate” and 46.4% as “severe.” Average length of stay was 2.0±0.7 days. While there was no significant difference in pH levels, CGM wearers had higher admission bicarbonate values (11.8 vs. 9.3, p=0.04) . Clinicians assessed the cause of DKA to be related to concurrent illness (10.7%) , insulin omission (14.3%) , pump infusion site failure (57.1%) or other pump malfunctions (14.3%) . For most (60.7%) , this was the first documented DKA event. Alcohol consumption was a contributing factor in only one event.

Conclusions: DKA events were relatively uncommon; most episodes occurred in adolescents in poor diabetes control. Notably, most events could have been avoided if users followed standard trouble shooting guidelines. Thus, education on DKA prevention should be reinforced at each visit, particularly for teens on pumps with higher A1c levels. Moreover, while CGM wearers had higher admission bicarbonate values, over 50% of those hospitalized for DKA wore a CGM, suggesting even pump users using CGM require frequent reinforcement of DKA prevention education.


E.Doyle: None. S.A.Weinzimer: Consultant; Dompé, Research Support; Abbott Diabetes, Speaker's Bureau; Abbott Diabetes, Dexcom, Inc. W.V.Tamborlane: Consultant; AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Medtronic, Novo Nordisk, Sanofi, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited.

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