Aim: To identify psychosocial factors in young adults (mean age 26 yrs) that predict medication adherence 1 year later in the Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY2) observational study.
Methods: Validated psychosocial measures (attitudes, beliefs, self-efficacy, distress, depression, anxiety, self-management support, needs insecurities) were completed at baseline (T1) . Medication adherence was assessed at T1 and 1 year later (T2) . Adherence to oral hypoglycemia agents (OHA) was assessed with 3 monthly unannounced phone pill counts. Insulin adherence was self-report. Adherence was defined categorically (≥ 80% pills/insulin=high adherent; < 80% = low adherent) and continuously (% adherence) . Logistic and linear regressions assessed psychosocial measures as predictors of adherence group (high vs. low) and % adherence, controlling for potential confounders.
Results: OHA adherence: Mean scores declined from T1 to T2 (57.9% vs. 51.4%, p=0.004; N=171) . In adjusted multivariable analyses, more concerns about diabetes medications (e.g. long-term effects) (p=0.035) and lack of healthcare coverage (p=0.043) predicted higher odds of being low adherent. Beliefs that medications are harmful (p=0.004) or overused (p=0.002) , lack of healthcare coverage (p<0.0001) , reporting ≥1 (p=0.004) and ≥2 (p=0.017) need insecurities predicted lower % adherence.Insulin adherence: Mean scores were stable from T1 to T2 (70.8% vs. 69.3%, p=0.622; N=157) . Beliefs that medications are harmful (p=0.022) or overused (p=0.002) and lower self-management support (p=0.006) predicted being low adherent and lower % adherence. High diabetes distress predicted lower % adherence (p=0.044) .
Conclusions: Negative beliefs about medicines and unmet material needs predicted poorer OHA adherence. Negative beliefs, low support and distress predicted lower insulin adherence. These factors may be targets for future interventions.
P.M.Trief: None. S.Kalichman: None. D.Uschner: None. L.M.Fette: None. H.Wen: None. K.Drews: None. B.Anderson: None. J.D.Bulger: None. R.S.Weinstock: Research Support; Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Dexcom, Inc., Diasome, Eli Lilly and Company, Insulet Corporation, Kowa Pharmaceuticals America, Inc., Medtronic, Novo Nordisk, Tandem Diabetes Care, Inc., Tolerion, Inc.
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (RO1DK110456, U01-DK61212, U01-DK61230, U01-DK61239, U01-DK61242, and U01-DK61254)