Fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) are fermentable short-chain carbohydrates that include fructans, galactooligosaccharides (GOS) , lactose, excess fructose, mannitol and sorbitol. Low FODMAP diets in irritable bowel syndrome were associated with reductions in metabolically beneficial, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) - producing bacteria. We examined the interactions between FODMAP, gut microbiota and glucose tolerance in this exploratory analysis. Twenty subjects underwent oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) with C peptide measurements. Ten were classified as normal glucose tolerant (mean ±SD 55±years, body mass index (BMI) 22.7±2.5 kg/m2, 2-hour plasma glucose 5.7±1.0 mmol/L) and with impaired glucose tolerance (58±5 years, BMI 23.5±2.9 kg/m2, 2-hour glucose 9.0±0.9 mmol/L) . FODMAPs and macronutrients were assessed from 3-day food diaries. Fecal samples were collected for microbiome analysis. Total FODMAPs were positively correlated to presence of Dorea (r=0.49, p=0.027) . For individual FODMAP items, lactose was positively correlated with Akkermansia (r=0.54, p=0.013) , Bifidobacterium (r=0.42, p=0.037) and negatively correlated with Shigella (r=0.35, p=0.031) in both groups. GOS were positively correlated with Lactobacillus (r= 0.21, p=0.006) and negatively with Shigella (r=0.28, p=0.043) . In the whole group, lower insulin resistance as shown by homeostasis model assessment HOMA2-IR was associated with higher abundance of Bifidobacterium logum (r=0.48, p=0.01) . HOMA2-beta showed correlation with Dorea (r=0.43, p=0.056) . FODMAPs increased the health-promoting microbiota (e.g. Dorea, Lactobacillus, Akkermansia, and Bifidobacterium) . These SCFA promoting microbiota were associated with lower insulin resistance and improved beta-cell function while suppressing the growth of opportunistic pathogens, such as Escherichia spp.
N. Chu: None. J. He: None. R.C. Ma: Research Support; AstraZeneca, Bayer AG, Novo Nordisk A/S, Pfizer Inc., Tricida, Inc. Other Relationship; Bayer AG, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH. A.P. Kong: Advisory Panel; Abbott, Kyowa Kirin Co., Ltd. Research Support; Boehringer Ingelheim. Speaker's Bureau; AstraZeneca, Bayer, Eli Lilly and Company, Sanofi. Stock/Shareholder; Aptorum Group Limited. Other Relationship; AstraZeneca, Novo Nordisk. J.C. Chan: Board Member; Asia Diabetes Foundation. Consultant; Bayer AG, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Celltrion, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Roche Diabetes Care, Viatris Inc. Research Support; Applied Therapeutics, AstraZeneca, Eli Lilly and Company, Hua Medicine, Servier Laboratories. Stock/Shareholder; GemVCare Ltd. E. Chow: Research Support; Hua Medicine, Medtronic, Powder Pharmaceuticals Inc. Speaker's Bureau; Novartis AG, Sanofi.
Health Medical Research Fund (17180431) Hong Kong College of Physicians Young Investigator's Research Grant