Background: HbA1c has traditionally been the gold standard of glycemic control. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has enabled capture of newer glycemic measures such as time in range (TIR) which has been associated with diabetes outcomes, captures glucose variability, and has been endorsed by professional societies. This preliminary analysis describes trends in publications and clinical trials that capture TIR as a clinical outcome.

Methods: Systematic review of Embase, MEDLINE, and clinical trial registries was conducted. For each article, year of publication, country of research, role of technology, and funding source were captured. Clinical trials also captured study start dates and anticipated completion dates.

Results: TIR was reported in 1561 publications and 401 clinical trials. The number of publications with TIR mentioned grew 12-fold between 2017-2021 (Figure 1) . Among clinical trials capturing TIR, 138 trials were completed between 2010-2020; another 240 have been finished or are estimated to conclude between 2021-2025.

Conclusion: TIR as an important clinical outcome continues to proliferate suggesting increasing acceptance of TIR as an emerging standard of care in diabetes management. Further analysis will differentiate studies where CGM was part of the intervention from those where CGM was used to measure outcomes with other interventions.


P. M. Patel: Employee; Abbott Diabetes. R. Abaniel: None. N. Dogra: Employee; Abbott Diabetes. M. Frazzitta: Employee; Abbott Diabetes, Abbott Diabetes. N. Virdi: Employee; Abbott Diabetes.


Abbott Diabetes Care

Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. More information is available at