Objective: In the US, Hispanic persons have a higher rate of Type 2 diabetes (T2D) than the national average, as well as experience more diabetes-related complications than non-Hispanic whites (NHWs) . This increased prevalence can be attributed to social and biological factors, like access to care and increased predisposition to pre-diabetic conditions. Currently, limited evidence exists for the effectiveness of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) at improving A1C levels in this population with T2D.
Methods: A systematic search focused on T2D interventions published from 1985 to 20was conducted using PubMed, Scopus, PsycInfo, and CINAHL. Search terms were structured around five broad concepts: diabetes, study design, language, race/ethnicity, and disparities. We focused on non-pharmacologic interventions, and included RCTs with ≥18.5% Hispanic persons, utilizing the 2020 US Census as standard. A random effects meta-analysis was performed to calculate the pooled effect size to provide summary estimates.
Results: Of the 111,289 articles reviewed, 28 trials met inclusion criteria. Participants were 90% Hispanic and 70% female with a mean age of 55.8 years. Most interventions used cultural tailoring, lifestyle and behavioral changes, or telehealth support and included bilingual nurses, Spanish educational materials, or community health workers. Compared to control, these interventions were associated with a 0.19% (95% confidence interval: -0.39% to 0.01%; p<0.01) reduction in A1c.
Conclusion: This meta-analysis examined non-pharmacologic interventions in Hispanic persons with T2D and found that they reduced A1c to a small degree. This finding is important for future T2D interventions tailoring to this population, as well as future health policy. Future analyses will examine which type of interventions (i.e. individual, community, societal, or multi-level) are most successful at reducing A1c among Hispanic persons.
S.Uranga: None. L.Bianco: None. A.Deckard: None. W.Wan: n/a. J.Alexander: None. E.M.Staab: None. A.W.Rodriguez: None. R.Shetty: None. N.Laiteerapong: None.