Background: Blood pressure and cholesterol levels have been associated with risk for atherosclerosis in youth. Family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMFam Hx) , and/or exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have also been linked to higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) susceptibility. We investigated whether CVD predictors including systolic and diastolic BP, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) , LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c) , and triglycerides (Tg) were associated with CIMT and whether these relationships were influenced by DMFam Hx or exposure to in-utero GDM among children and adolescents with overweight and obesity.
Methods: Participant data (N=209; age range 8-17; 38% African American and 62% Latino; BMI percentile ≥85th) were used for cross-sectional analysis. Status of DMFam Hx and GDM and were self-reported during an interview with a clinician. Systolic and diastolic BP were taken in a seated position in triplicate readings. Total cholesterol, HDL-c and Tg levels were determined via assays on fasting blood samples, while LDL-c was calculated using the Friedewald equation. CIMT was measured in millimeters with high-resolution B-mode ultrasound. Multivariable linear regression models were used to assess if the each of the CVD predictors was associated with CIMT while accounting for GDM and DMFam Hx, and adjusting for a priori covariates of age, sex, ethnicity, and height.
Results: Higher systolic BP was associated with higher CIMT when adjusted for a priori covariates (β= 0.00092; 95% CI: 0.00004, 0.00181; p=0.04) . In further adjusted models, GDM and DMFam Hx did not contribute to, nor did it moderate this relationship (p>0.05) . Diastolic BP, HDL-c, LDL-c, Tg, were not associated to CIMT in adjusted models (p>0.05) .
Conclusion: Independent of genetic predisposition, systolic BP may be a salient contributor of atherosclerosis risk in minority youth with overweight and obesity living in urban environments.
V.Nunez: None. M.Weigensberg: None. C.M.Toledo-corral: None.