Background: Time-restricted eating (TRE) is a type of intermittent fasting reducing the interval for eating and drinking without other dietary restrictions.

Aim: To investigate the feasibility of a 12-week 10-h TRE-based intervention targeting people with type 2 diabetes (T2D), including the participants’ needs and barriers when following TRE.

Methods: In this single-arm pilot study, 10 men and 10 women with T2D (mean HbA1c: 59 mmol/mol (7.8 %DCCT) and T2D duration: 15 years) followed a 12-week intervention co-created with people with T2D, their relatives and healthcare professionals (HCP). First, participants followed 8 weeks of strict TRE with a self-selected, fixed 10-h eating window (EW) to obtain lived experiences with TRE. This was followed by a 4-week TRE period with individually selected adjustments such as occasional rescheduling of EW, calorie-free beverages outside the EW, peer-support sessions, and phone calls with HCP. The individual EW and adjustments were planned during 1-hour meetings with an HCP at baseline and after 8 weeks. Body weight and HbA1c were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. Qualitative interviews were conducted at baseline, after 8 and 12 weeks.

Results: Nineteen participants (median age: 68 years, mean body weight: 102.8 kg, and BMI: 34.6 kg/m2) completed the study. Body weight (-2.0 kg (95% CI: -2.9, -1.1), p<0.001) and HbA1c (-4.1 mmol/mol (-6.7, -1.4), -0.38 %DCCT (-0.62, -0.13), p=0.005) were reduced after 12 weeks compared to baseline. Most participants were positive and found TRE easier to follow than expected, but many experienced barriers in relation to social activities and holidays. The adherence was impacted by a variety of factors and differed among participants, who emphasized the importance of support from HCPs, relatives, peers, and adjustments such as morning coffee and ‘days off’ TRE.

Conclusions: We found that 12-weeks of TRE was feasible and well-tolerated and may improve glycemic control and body weight in individuals with T2D.


A.Termannsen: None. J.S.Quist: Research Support; Novo Nordisk A/S. A.R.Varming: None. G.S.H.Stage hansen: None. N.Bjerre: Research Support; Novo Nordisk Foundation. F.Persson: Advisory Panel; AstraZeneca, Bayer Consumer Care AG, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Novo Nordisk A/S, Consultant; AstraZeneca, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Novo Nordisk A/S, Research Support; Boehringer-Ingelheim, Novo Nordisk A/S, Speaker's Bureau; AstraZeneca, Bayer Consumer Care AG, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Novo Nordisk A/S, Sanofi. J.I.Bagger: Speaker's Bureau; Novo Nordisk A/S. N.B.Jørgensen: None. N.F.Hempler: None. K.Faerch: Board Member; ChemoMetec A/S, Consultant; Novo Nordisk A/S, Research Support; Novo Nordisk A/S, Stock/Shareholder; Novo Nordisk A/S, Novozymes, ChemoMetec A/S.

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