Stress-induced islet graft loss reduces the efficacy of islet transplants. In this single-center, randomized, double-blind, and controlled clinical trial, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of human alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) infusion in chronic pancreatitis (CP) patients undergoing total pancreatectomy and islet autotransplantation (TP-IAT) at the Medical University of South Carolina. Among 48 qualified subjects randomized in a 1:2 (placebo vs AAT) ratio, 43 received TP-IAT. Subjects were given saline or AAT infusion at 60mg/kg weekly for 4 weeks and were followed for 12 months. The primary efficacy endpoint was the islet function measured by the C-peptide area under the curve during a mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT) at Month 12 (M12). Adverse events (AEs) were measured throughout the study. Safety, glycemic control, insulin use, and quality of life (QoL) were compared between groups. Safety evaluation showed no significant differences in the types and severity of participant AEs. The primary efficacy outcome was not significantly different between groups. Baseline characteristics including age, body weight, BMI, HbA1C, etc, were comparable in the randomized populations. The oxygen consumption rate before the transplant was higher in the AAT group. Serum C-peptide (an indicator of islet death) was lower in the AAT group, suggesting less islet injury. AAT subjects trended toward better SF-12 physical QoL and lower insulin use at both 75 and 365 days post-IAT. Despite intensive efforts to get participants to return for the Day 365 MMTT, only 10/14 (71%) in the placebo group and 18/29 (62%) in the AAT group returned for this test. Although we did not observe a statistical difference in islet function using AAT therapy, we gained a better understanding of this patient population. Minimizing numbers of follow-up visits, use of fewer doses of medication with higher doses, and providing travel are all important for future clinical trials in TP-IAT.


H. Wang: None. W. Gou: None. D. Adams: None. K. Morgan: Speaker's Bureau; Johnson & Johnson Medical Devices Companies. P.J. Nietert: None. J. Hirsch: None. C. Strange: None.


National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (1R01DK105183, DK120394, DK118529); U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (I01BX004536 to H.W.)

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