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ampk-amp-activated-protein-kinase

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Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2001;50(5):921–927
Published: 01 May 2001
... and glucose uptake in these patients. Several groups have recently hypothesized that exercise increases glucose uptake via an insulin-independent mechanism mediated by the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). If this hypothesis is correct, people with type 2 diabetes should have normal AMPK...
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2008;57(3):594–605
Published: 01 March 2008
...-protein diet (HPD) is known to promote the reduction of body fat, but the mechanisms underlying this change are unclear. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) function as majors regulators of cellular metabolism that respond to changes in energy status, and recent...
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2017;66(3):786–787
Published: 14 February 2017
... strip) ∘De Souza et al. FASEBJ 2007;21:1153–1163. DOI: 10.1096/fj.06-7148com. PMID: 17209127. (Fig. 6B, IB:IRS1) ∘Ropelle et al. Endocrinology 2007;148:5220–5229. DOI: 10.1210/en.2007-0381. PMID: 17717055 (Fig. 2B, total AMPK) In addition, these images appear to have...
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2016;65(4):1122–1123
Published: 17 March 2016
...–5, bottom strip) Ropelle et al. Endocrinology 2007;148:5220–5229. DOI: 10.1210/en.2007-0381. PMID: 17717055 (Fig. 2B, total AMPK) Lanes 1 and 2 and lanes 3 and 4 in Fig. 6L, total eIF4E, appear to be identical. In addition, the total eIF4E strip appears to be a duplicate...
Meeting Abstracts
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2019;68(Supplement_1):119-OR
Published: 01 June 2019
... sugar activate AMPK, which has emerged as a whole body and cellular energy sensor. Direct delivery of AMPK activator to the ventromedial hypothalamus of rodents leads to increased hepatic glucose-production, observed during hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic clamp studies, and genetic activation of AMPK...
Meeting Abstracts
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2018;67(Supplement_1):484-P
Published: 01 July 2018
... Sirt1, a NAD+-dependent deacetylase, to activate eNOS and decrease neointimal formation, but did not see any difference between neointimal growth of control and Sirt1-/- mice given HFD. AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) is an energy sensor which also protects against neointimal hyperplasia...
Images
βL <span class="search-highlight">activates</span> <span class="search-highlight">AMP</span>-<span class="search-highlight">activated</span> <span class="search-highlight">protein</span> <span class="search-highlight">kinase</span> (<span class="search-highlight">AMPK</span>) signaling pathway and fatt...
Published: 09 January 2009
FIG. 2. βL activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway and fatty acid oxidation in vivo. A: NAD+-to-NADH ratio was calculated in the liver of male mice treated intravenously with vehicle (n = 5; open bars) or 5 mg/kg βL (n = 5; closed bars) for the indicated time (*P < 0.05). B–D: Effects of βL on phosphorylations of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in vivo for liver (B), EDL (C), and soleus (D). DIO mice were dosed orally with vehicle (n = 3) or 50 mg/kg βL (n = 3). After treatment of βL for 2 h, extracts from liver (B), extensor digitorum longus (EDL) (C), and soleus muscle (D) were immunoblotted with antibodies against the indicated proteins. E: Comparison of the AMPK activity in the three indicated tissues of DIO mice dosed orally with vesicle and 50 mg/kg βL for 2 h (n = 5, respectively). F–G: Comparisons of the ACC activity (F) and malonyl-CoA quantity (G) in the soleus muscle of DIO mice dosed orally with vesicle and 50 mg/kg βL for 2 h (n = 5, respectively). H–J: βL stimulates mitochondrial energy metabolism in DIO mice. Comparisons of the carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) (H), 3-HAD activities (I), or 14C-palmityl-CoA oxidation (J) in vehicle and 50 mg/kg βL-treated DIO mice (n = 5, respectively). Mice used for all the experiments were male (*P < 0.05; **P < 0.005). FIG. 2. βL activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway and fatty acid oxidation in vivo. A: NAD+-to-NADH ratio was calculated in the liver of male mice treated intravenously with vehicle (n = 5; open bars) or 5 mg/kg βL (n = 5; closed bars) for the indicated time (*P < 0.05). B–D: Effects of βL on phosphorylations of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in vivo for liver (B), EDL (C), and soleus (D). DIO mice were dosed orally with vehicle (n = 3) or 50 mg/kg βL (n = 3). After treatment of βL for 2 h, extracts from liver (B), extensor digitorum longus (EDL) (C), and soleus muscle (D) were immunoblotted with antibodies against the indicated proteins. E: Comparison of the AMPK activity in the three indicated tissues of DIO mice dosed orally with vesicle and 50 mg/kg βL for 2 h (n = 5, respectively). F–G: Comparisons of the ACC activity (F) and malonyl-CoA quantity (G) in the soleus muscle of DIO mice dosed orally with vesicle and 50 mg/kg βL for 2 h (n = 5, respectively). H–J: βL stimulates mitochondrial energy metabolism in DIO mice. Comparisons of the carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) (H), 3-HAD activities (I), or 14C-palmityl-CoA oxidation (J) in vehicle and 50 mg/kg βL-treated DIO mice (n = 5, respectively). Mice used for all the experiments were male (*P < 0.05; **P < 0.005). More
Images
Hypothetical model depicting the role of Nlrp3 inflammasome in type 2 diabe...
Published: 13 December 2012
FIG. 1. Hypothetical model depicting the role of Nlrp3 inflammasome in type 2 diabetes. Metabolic stress–induced “danger signals” in type 2 diabetes such as islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), urate, extracellular ATP, fatty acids, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and reactive oxygen species (ROS)... More
Images
Proposed model involving GSK-3 inhibition and the mTOR pathway to stimulate...
Published: 01 March 2009
FIG. 8. Proposed model involving GSK-3 inhibition and the mTOR pathway to stimulate human β-cell growth and proliferation. Increased nutrient metabolism inhibits AMPK activity, and LiCl or 1-Akp directly inhibits GSK-3. This blocks TSC1/2, resulting in mTOR activation and signaling to 4EBP1 and S6... More
Images
Mechanisms of lipid-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Lipolysi...
Published: 13 September 2012
FIG. 1. Mechanisms of lipid-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Lipolysis of plasma triglycerides (TG) by lipoprotein lipase (LPL) increases FFAs, including saturated fatty acids (SFA), which are taken up by fatty acid transporters (Fatp1/CD36) and activated to fatty acyl-CoA (FA-CoA) by acyl-CoA synthase. Substrate competition postulates that lipid oxidation in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle raises the NADH/NADH+ and acetyl-CoA/CoA ratios, which inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and subsequently phosphofructokinase (PFK) and hexokinase II (HKII). Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) would inhibit glucose uptake and feed glycogen synthesis via glycogen synthase (GSK). Substrate signaling involves the lipid intermediate DAG arising from triglyceride synthesis via glycerol phosphate synthase (GPAT) and DAG acyltransferase (DGAT) or from lipolysis via adipose tissue triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). Certain DAG species activate novel PKC isoforms and inhibit insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) signaling. Ceramides are synthesized via serine palmitoyl transferase (SPT), which is also transcriptionally activated by inhibitory-κB kinase (IKK) and ceramide synthase (CS) and in turn inhibit Akt signaling. Inhibition of insulin signaling will inhibit glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) recruitment and thereby decrease glucose transport/phosphorylation. In this model, glycogen synthesis will decrease in turn and/or as a result of lower phosphorylation (p) of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β), which would lead to lower glycogen synthase (GS) activity. AMPK, AMP-activated protein kinase. FIG. 1. Mechanisms of lipid-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Lipolysis of plasma triglycerides (TG) by lipoprotein lipase (LPL) increases FFAs, including saturated fatty acids (SFA), which are taken up by fatty acid transporters (Fatp1/CD36) and activated to fatty acyl-CoA (FA-CoA) by acyl-CoA synthase. Substrate competition postulates that lipid oxidation in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle raises the NADH/NADH+ and acetyl-CoA/CoA ratios, which inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and subsequently phosphofructokinase (PFK) and hexokinase II (HKII). Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) would inhibit glucose uptake and feed glycogen synthesis via glycogen synthase (GSK). Substrate signaling involves the lipid intermediate DAG arising from triglyceride synthesis via glycerol phosphate synthase (GPAT) and DAG acyltransferase (DGAT) or from lipolysis via adipose tissue triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). Certain DAG species activate novel PKC isoforms and inhibit insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) signaling. Ceramides are synthesized via serine palmitoyl transferase (SPT), which is also transcriptionally activated by inhibitory-κB kinase (IKK) and ceramide synthase (CS) and in turn inhibit Akt signaling. Inhibition of insulin signaling will inhibit glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) recruitment and thereby decrease glucose transport/phosphorylation. In this model, glycogen synthesis will decrease in turn and/or as a result of lower phosphorylation (p) of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β), which would lead to lower glycogen synthase (GS) activity. AMPK, AMP-activated protein kinase. More
Images
<span class="search-highlight">AMP</span> <span class="search-highlight">kinase</span> <span class="search-highlight">activity</span> of interscapular BAT. WT and UCP1-KO mice were anesthet...
Published: 01 May 2005
FIG. 5. AMP kinase activity of interscapular BAT. WT and UCP1-KO mice were anesthetized as in Fig. 2 , injected with NE (0.2 mg/kg) or saline intraperitoneally, and decapitated 11 min later. A: AMP kinase activity in an extract of interscapular BAT was measured in the presence (▪) and absence (□) of 0.2 mmol/l AMP and expressed as relative to the basal activity of saline control in the absence of AMP (0.06 ± 0.02 and 0.12 ± 0.04 nmole · min−1 · mg−1 protein for WT and UCP1-KO mice, respectively). B: The same tissue extract was analyzed by Western blotting to detect phosphorylated and total AMP kinase using specific antibodies. The amount of phosphorylated form (P-AMPK) was normalized by those of total AMP kinase (T-AMPK) and expressed as relative to those of saline controls of respective mice. Values are means ± SE for 3–5 mice. *P < 0.05 vs. saline controls. FIG. 5. AMP kinase activity of interscapular BAT. WT and UCP1-KO mice were anesthetized as in Fig. 2, injected with NE (0.2 mg/kg) or saline intraperitoneally, and decapitated 11 min later. A: AMP kinase activity in an extract of interscapular BAT was measured in the presence (▪) and absence (□) of 0.2 mmol/l AMP and expressed as relative to the basal activity of saline control in the absence of AMP (0.06 ± 0.02 and 0.12 ± 0.04 nmole · min−1 · mg−1 protein for WT and UCP1-KO mice, respectively). B: The same tissue extract was analyzed by Western blotting to detect phosphorylated and total AMP kinase using specific antibodies. The amount of phosphorylated form (P-AMPK) was normalized by those of total AMP kinase (T-AMPK) and expressed as relative to those of saline controls of respective mice. Values are means ± SE for 3–5 mice. *P < 0.05 vs. saline controls. More
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2002;51(8):2420–2425
Published: 01 August 2002
...Simon A. Hawley; Anne E. Gadalla; Grith Skytte Olsen; D. Grahame Hardie Metformin, a drug widely used to treat type 2 diabetes, was recently shown to activate the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in intact cells and in vivo. In this study we addressed the mechanism for this effect. In intact...
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2003;52(4):926–928
Published: 01 April 2003
... an association between these adaptations and the energy-sensing 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the activity of which is increased in response to exercise. Activation of AMPK has been associated with enhanced expression of key metabolic proteins such as GLUT-4, hexokinase II (HKII), and mitochondrial...
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2008;57(5):1414–1418
Published: 01 May 2008
...Nigel Turner; Jing-Ya Li; Alison Gosby; Sabrina W.C. To; Zhe Cheng; Hiroyuki Miyoshi; Makoto M. Taketo; Gregory J. Cooney; Edward W. Kraegen; David E. James; Li-Hong Hu; Jia Li; Ji-Ming Ye OBJECTIVE— Berberine (BBR) activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and improves insulin sensitivity...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2003;52(9):2205–2212
Published: 01 September 2003
...Zhi-Ping Chen; Terry J. Stephens; Sid Murthy; Benedict J. Canny; Mark Hargreaves; Lee A. Witters; Bruce E. Kemp; Glenn K. McConell The effect of exercise intensity on skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and substrate metabolism was examined in eight men cycling for 20 min...
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2005;54(1):63–68
Published: 01 January 2005
...Churl Namkoong; Min Seon Kim; Pil Geum Jang; Sung Min Han; Hye Sun Park; Eun Hee Koh; Woo Je Lee; Jong Yeon Kim; In Sun Park; Joong Yeol Park; Ki Up Lee AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) acts as a cellular energy sensor, being activated during states of low energy charge. Hypothalamic AMPK...
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2003;52(7):1635–1640
Published: 01 July 2003
... process occurs independently of insulin, and the mechanism by which it operates is incompletely understood. Activation of the energy-sensing enzyme AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been shown to increase insulin-independent glucose transport into skeletal muscle in response to such stimuli...
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2006;55(3):682–690
Published: 01 March 2006
...Dana S. Hutchinson; Tore Bengtsson AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which functions as a sensor of cellular energy homeostasis, was phosphorylated after norepinephrine stimulation in L6 skeletal muscle cells. This effect was mediated by α1-adrenoceptors, with no stimulatory effects...
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2004;53(8):1953–1958
Published: 01 August 2004
.... We sought to test the hypothesis that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an intracellular kinase purported to act as a fuel sensor, plays a role in hypoglycemia sensing in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) of the Sprague-Dawley rat by chemically activating AMPK in vivo through bilateral...
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2004;53(suppl_3):S67–S74
Published: 01 December 2004
...Isabelle Leclerc; Guy A. Rutter Stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in skeletal muscle and liver is seen as an exciting prospect for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, we have recently demonstrated that changes in AMPK activity accompany the exposure of pancreatic islet β...