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cox-cyclooxygenase

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Proposed mechanisms of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation by NO, PGI<sub></sub>...
Published: 12 July 2016
Figure 1 Proposed mechanisms of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation by NO, PGI2, and EDHF. cGMP, cyclic guanosine monophosphate; Cox, cyclooxygenase; eNOS, endothelial NO synthase; PKA, protein kinase A; PKG, protein kinase G; sGC, soluble guanylyl cyclase. Figure 1. Proposed mechanisms of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation by NO, PGI2, and EDHF. cGMP, cyclic guanosine monophosphate; Cox, cyclooxygenase; eNOS, endothelial NO synthase; PKA, protein kinase A; PKG, protein kinase G; sGC, soluble guanylyl cyclase. More
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HFD-induced changes in the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors a...
Published: 31 May 2016
Figure 4 HFD-induced changes in the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors and HIF-1α protein are reversed in the adipose tissue of iNOS−/− mice. A: Expression levels of HIF-1α, HIF-2α, and HIF-3α mRNA in WT and iNOS−/− mice fed a ND or HFD. B: Representative Western blots of HIF-1α protein and protein quantification in eWAT. C: Relative mRNA expression levels of mitochondrial biogenesis factors, including endothelial NOS (eNOS), PGC-1α, and mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA). D: Gene expression levels of adiponectin and mitochondrial respiratory complexes, including cyclooxygenase (COX) I, COX IV, and COX V. Data are the mean ± SEM values of 8–10 mice. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, and ***P < 0.001 vs. ND-fed WT mice; ##P < 0.01 and ###P < 0.001 vs. HFD-fed WT mice. Figure 4. HFD-induced changes in the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors and HIF-1α protein are reversed in the adipose tissue of iNOS−/− mice. A: Expression levels of HIF-1α, HIF-2α, and HIF-3α mRNA in WT and iNOS−/− mice fed a ND or HFD. B: Representative Western blots of HIF-1α protein and protein quantification in eWAT. C: Relative mRNA expression levels of mitochondrial biogenesis factors, including endothelial NOS (eNOS), PGC-1α, and mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA). D: Gene expression levels of adiponectin and mitochondrial respiratory complexes, including cyclooxygenase (COX) I, COX IV, and COX V. Data are the mean ± SEM values of 8–10 mice. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, and ***P < 0.001 vs. ND-fed WT mice; ##P < 0.01 and ###P < 0.001 vs. HFD-fed WT mice. More
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2016;65(8):2118–2120
Published: 12 July 2016
...Figure 1 Proposed mechanisms of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation by NO, PGI2, and EDHF. cGMP, cyclic guanosine monophosphate; Cox, cyclooxygenase; eNOS, endothelial NO synthase; PKA, protein kinase A; PKG, protein kinase G; sGC, soluble guanylyl cyclase. Figure 1. Proposed...
Meeting Abstracts
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 1998;47(9):1379–1383
Published: 01 September 1998
...R P Robertson Dramatic, scientifically important discoveries in prostaglandin (PG) pharmacology and physiology have taken place over the past decade. Chief among these discoveries is the identification of two separate forms of cyclooxygenase (COX), a constitutive and an inducible form, both...
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2006;55(12):3439–3445
Published: 01 December 2006
... monocytes express cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, promoting prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) secretion, whereas COX-1 expression is constitutive. We aimed to define monocyte COX expression in type 1 diabetes basally and after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Isolated CD14+ monocytes...
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2007;56(6):1569–1576
Published: 01 June 2007
...Khara M. Ramos; Yun Jiang; Camilla I. Svensson; Nigel A. Calcutt Hyperalgesia to noxious stimuli is accompanied by increased spinal cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 protein in diabetic rats. The present studies were initiated to establish causality between increased spinal COX-2 activity and hyperalgesia...
Meeting Abstracts
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 1998;47(4):677–684
Published: 01 April 1998
... an inhibition of the rate-limiting enzyme of prostaglandin biosynthesis, cyclooxygenase (COX), caused developmental disturbances analogous to those seen in embryos exposed to high glucose concentration. Whether antioxidants could prevent such developmental alterations was also investigated. Whole embryo culture...
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2007;56(1):197–203
Published: 01 January 2007
...Shanta J. Persaud; Dany Muller; Véronique D. Belin; Isidora Kitsou-Mylona; Henry Asare-Anane; Alexandros Papadimitriou; Chris J. Burns; Guo Cai Huang; Stephanie A. Amiel; Peter M. Jones The roles played by arachidonic acid and its cyclooxygenase (COX)-generated and lipoxygenase (LOX)-generated...
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2003;52(10):2570–2577
Published: 01 October 2003
... in bovine endothelial cells. Because several studies have postulated a role for prostaglandins (PGs) in the glomerular hyperfiltration seen in early diabetes, we evaluated the effect of mitochondrial ROS on expression of the inducible isoform of cyclooxygenase (COX-2) in cultured human mesangial cells (HMCs...
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2005;54(5):1543–1551
Published: 01 May 2005
...Heiko Kämpfer; Ronald Schmidt; Gerd Geisslinger; Josef Pfeilschifter; Stefan Frank This study focused on the regulation of prostaglandin (PG) production in diabetes-impaired wound tissue. Cyclooxygenase (COX)- 1 and -2 expression and activity were severely dysregulated in chronic wounds...
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2007;56(12):2997–3005
Published: 01 December 2007
...Aaron P. Kellogg; Tim D. Wiggin; Dennis D. Larkin; John M. Hayes; Martin J. Stevens; Rodica Pop-Busui OBJECTIVE —Activation of the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway with secondary neurovascular deficits are implicated in the pathogenesis of experimental diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). The aim...
Meeting Abstracts
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 1999;48(4):813–820
Published: 01 April 1999
... hyperglycemia in vitro (embryo culture for 24-48 h) and maternal diabetes in vivo to affect embryonic development. Subsequently, we assessed lipid peroxidation and gene expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2 and measured the concentration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in embryos and membranes. Both...
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2004;53(3):795–802
Published: 01 March 2004
...Narkunaraja Shanmugam; Irene T. Gaw Gonzalo; Rama Natarajan The cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 enzyme has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases. However, its role in diabetic vascular disease is unclear. In this study, we evaluated the hypothesis that diabetic conditions can...
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2005;54(7):2155–2163
Published: 01 July 2005
..., and there was no change in cyclooxygenase (COX) and BK channel expressions. Real-time PCR studies showed that mRNA levels of PGIS, COX-1, and COX-2 were similar between lean and ZDF vessels. We conclude that PGI2 is the major AA metabolite in lean coronaries, and AA-mediated BK channel activation is impaired...
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2002;51(6):1772–1778
Published: 01 June 2002
... (NF-κB) activation. Sodium salicylate also prevented IL-1β from inducing EP3 and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 gene expression in islets and thereby prevented IL-1β from inhibiting glucose-induced insulin secretion. These findings indicate that the sites of action through which sodium salicylate inhibits...
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2002;51(8):2619–2628
Published: 01 August 2002
...Rodica Pop-Busui; Victor Marinescu; Carol Van Huysen; Fei Li; Kelli Sullivan; Douglas A. Greene; Dennis Larkin; Martin J. Stevens Alterations in cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway activity have been implicated in the pathogenesis of experimental diabetic neuropathy (EDN). These studies explore...
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2003;52(8):1994–1999
Published: 01 August 2003
... by streptozotocin abolished the cytokine-induced free radical formation. Furthermore, macrophage depletion was found to decrease the production of free radicals. Inhibition of the enzyme inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2) and the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) significantly diminished the free...
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IL-6 regulates mitochondrial function through NRF2. <em>A</em>: Qua...
Published: 21 May 2018
Figure 7 IL-6 regulates mitochondrial function through NRF2. A: Quantitative PCR analysis of expression of NRF2 target genes in INS-1 cells following IL-6 treatment for the indicated times. B: Representative Western blotting (left) and quantification (right) of NRF2 levels in fractionated INS-1 cells treated with IL-6 for the indicated times. Fractionation controls include α-tubulin (cytoplasm), cyclooxygenase (COX) IV (mitochondria), and Lamin A/C (nuclei). C: Representative Western blotting (left) and quantification (right) of PARKIN, p62, and LC3 levels in fractionated INS-1 cells treated with IL-6 for the indicated times. Mitochondrial fractionation control is COX IV. D: Mitochondrial membrane potential measurements (TMRM). Circles represent data from untransfected INS-1 cells. Squares represent data from INS-1 cells transfected with nontargeting siRNA, and triangles represent data from INS-1 cells transfected with Nrf2 siRNA. Solid shapes represent vehicle-treated cells, and open shapes represent IL-6-treated cells. TMRM was normalized to stable MitoTracker Green (Mito) levels. E: Representative single-islet trace showing real-time cAMP measurements from mouse islets infected with the mNeon cADDis cAMP biosensor in the presence of glucose, exendin-4 (Ex4), IL-6, or isoproterenol (ISO). F: Quantification of the percentage change in cAMP relative to baseline across all replicates. Circles represent exendin-4-treated cells. Squares represent IL-6-treated cells, and triangles represent isoproterenol-treated cells. Data are mean ± SEM for 3–6 individual experiments. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001; ****P < 0.0001. Figure 7. IL-6 regulates mitochondrial function through NRF2. A: Quantitative PCR analysis of expression of NRF2 target genes in INS-1 cells following IL-6 treatment for the indicated times. B: Representative Western blotting (left) and quantification (right) of NRF2 levels in fractionated INS-1 cells treated with IL-6 for the indicated times. Fractionation controls include α-tubulin (cytoplasm), cyclooxygenase (COX) IV (mitochondria), and Lamin A/C (nuclei). C: Representative Western blotting (left) and quantification (right) of PARKIN, p62, and LC3 levels in fractionated INS-1 cells treated with IL-6 for the indicated times. Mitochondrial fractionation control is COX IV. D: Mitochondrial membrane potential measurements (TMRM). Circles represent data from untransfected INS-1 cells. Squares represent data from INS-1 cells transfected with nontargeting siRNA, and triangles represent data from INS-1 cells transfected with Nrf2 siRNA. Solid shapes represent vehicle-treated cells, and open shapes represent IL-6-treated cells. TMRM was normalized to stable MitoTracker Green (Mito) levels. E: Representative single-islet trace showing real-time cAMP measurements from mouse islets infected with the mNeon cADDis cAMP biosensor in the presence of glucose, exendin-4 (Ex4), IL-6, or isoproterenol (ISO). F: Quantification of the percentage change in cAMP relative to baseline across all replicates. Circles represent exendin-4-treated cells. Squares represent IL-6-treated cells, and triangles represent isoproterenol-treated cells. Data are mean ± SEM for 3–6 individual experiments. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001; ****P < 0.0001. More
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2002;51(7):2249–2255
Published: 01 July 2002
... drug (NSAID) indomethacin (Sigma), a nonselective inhibitor of both isoforms of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and -2), was dissolved in a vehicle of 20 mmol/l NaOH and 280 mmol/l d-glucose in distilled water. The EP1 receptor antagonist ONO 8711 (6-[(2S, 3S)-3-(4-chloro-2...
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2017;66(2):494–504
Published: 04 November 2016
... by us and others have reported that macrophage cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays a role in polarization and maintenance of a macrophage tissue-reparative M2 phenotype. We examined the effects of macrophage COX-2 on development of DN in type 1 diabetes. Cultured macrophages with COX-2 deletion exhibited...
Includes: Supplementary data