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Palmitate R<sub>a</sub> in plasma and plasma palmitate concentration. Basal...
Published: 15 July 2021
Figure 2 Palmitate Ra in plasma and plasma palmitate concentration. Basal palmitate Ra in plasma, an index of adipose tissue lipolytic rate, expressed in relation to fat mass (A) and fat-free mass (B); the relationships between plasma insulin concentration during both basal conditions and the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp procedure and palmitate Ra in plasma expressed in relation to fat mass (C), fat-free mass (D), and basal plasma palmitate concentration (E); and relationship between palmitate Ra in plasma and plasma palmitate concentration (F) in healthy lean participants and participants with obesity who were grouped, by quartiles, according to insulin-simulated whole-body glucose uptake rate. Values are expressed as mean ± SEM (upward error bar only) or median (IQR). ANOVA was used to evaluate differences in outcome variables among groups in A, B, and E. Skewed data sets were log transformed to achieve normal distribution before analysis. Curve fitting was used to evaluate the relationships between outcome variables in panels C, D, and F. Bars not sharing letters are significantly different from each other, P < 0.05. *Significant main effect of obesity, P < 0.05. FFM, fat-free mass; FM, fat mass; OIR, obese insulin-resistant (Q3/4); OIS, obese insulin-sensitive (Q1). Figure 2. Palmitate Ra in plasma and plasma palmitate concentration. Basal palmitate Ra in plasma, an index of adipose tissue lipolytic rate, expressed in relation to fat mass (A) and fat-free mass (B); the relationships between plasma insulin concentration during both basal conditions and the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp procedure and palmitate Ra in plasma expressed in relation to fat mass (C), fat-free mass (D), and basal plasma palmitate concentration (E); and relationship between palmitate Ra in plasma and plasma palmitate concentration (F) in healthy lean participants and participants with obesity who were grouped, by quartiles, according to insulin-simulated whole-body glucose uptake rate. Values are expressed as mean ± SEM (upward error bar only) or median (IQR). ANOVA was used to evaluate differences in outcome variables among groups in A, B, and E. Skewed data sets were log transformed to achieve normal distribution before analysis. Curve fitting was used to evaluate the relationships between outcome variables in panels C, D, and F. Bars not sharing letters are significantly different from each other, P < 0.05. *Significant main effect of obesity, P < 0.05. FFM, fat-free mass; FM, fat mass; OIR, obese insulin-resistant (Q3/4); OIS, obese insulin-sensitive (Q1). More
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GCGR agonism in <em>Fgf21</em><sup>∆liver</sup> mice. Change in per...
Published: 20 June 2018
Figure 3 GCGR agonism in Fgf21∆liver mice. Change in percent BW (A), average food intake (B), and body composition (C) of 20-week-old male DIO WT and Fgf21∆liver mice following daily GCGR agonism (10 nmol/kg IUB288). All data are represented as mean ± SEM (n = 5–7 mice/group). Mice were maintained on an HFD for 12 weeks to induce DIO prior to treatment. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001; ****P < 0.0001, as compared with vehicle controls; #P < 0.05; ##P < 0.01; ###P < 0.001; ####P < 0.0001 as compared between genotypes within treatment. d, day; FM, fat mass; LM, lean mass. Figure 3. GCGR agonism in Fgf21∆liver mice. Change in percent BW (A), average food intake (B), and body composition (C) of 20-week-old male DIO WT and Fgf21∆liver mice following daily GCGR agonism (10 nmol/kg IUB288). All data are represented as mean ± SEM (n = 5–7 mice/group). Mice were maintained on an HFD for 12 weeks to induce DIO prior to treatment. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001; ****P < 0.0001, as compared with vehicle controls; #P < 0.05; ##P < 0.01; ###P < 0.001; ####P < 0.0001 as compared between genotypes within treatment. d, day; FM, fat mass; LM, lean mass. More
Images
GCGR agonism in <em>Gcgr</em><sup>∆liver</sup> mice. <em>A</em>...
Published: 20 June 2018
Figure 2 GCGR agonism in Gcgr∆liver mice. A: Ad libitum blood glucose of DIO WT and Gcgr∆liver mice (see Fig. 1 ) following daily GCGR agonism (10 nmol/kg IUB288). Change in percent BW (B) and body composition (C) after daily GCGR agonism. Total food intake (D), plasma (E), and liver (F) TG and CHL in DIO WT and Gcgr∆liver mice following daily GCGR agonism. All data are represented as mean ± SEM (n = 8–12 mice/group). *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001; ****P < 0.0001, as compared with vehicle controls; #P < 0.05; ##P < 0.01; ###P < 0.001; ####P < 0.0001 as compared between genotypes within treatment. d, day; FM, fat mass; LM, lean mass. Figure 2. GCGR agonism in Gcgr∆liver mice. A: Ad libitum blood glucose of DIO WT and Gcgr∆liver mice (see Fig. 1) following daily GCGR agonism (10 nmol/kg IUB288). Change in percent BW (B) and body composition (C) after daily GCGR agonism. Total food intake (D), plasma (E), and liver (F) TG and CHL in DIO WT and Gcgr∆liver mice following daily GCGR agonism. All data are represented as mean ± SEM (n = 8–12 mice/group). *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001; ****P < 0.0001, as compared with vehicle controls; #P < 0.05; ##P < 0.01; ###P < 0.001; ####P < 0.0001 as compared between genotypes within treatment. d, day; FM, fat mass; LM, lean mass. More
Images
miR-30a expression in iWAT of DIO mice improves energy balance. Body compos...
Published: 12 July 2018
Figure 3 miR-30a expression in iWAT of DIO mice improves energy balance. Body composition (A) and fat depot mass (normalized to body weight) (B) of DIO mice ectopically expressing Adv-GFP or Adv-miR-30a in iWAT. C: Energy expenditure (heat) during two complete 12-h light-dark cycles 11 days after local expression of Adv-GFP or Adv-miR-30a in iWAT of DIO mice. Average oxygen consumption (VO2) (D), carbon dioxide production (VCO2) (E), and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) (F) during the 12-h light-dark cycles were determined by Comprehensive Lab Animal Monitoring System (CLAMS). G: Cumulative food intake during CLAMS experiments (n = 5). H: Histology showing UCP1 immunostaining in iWAT of Adv-GFP or Adv-miR-30a DIO mice. Arrowheads indicate UCP1-positive cells. Scale bars, 50 μm. Adv-miR-30a expression in iWAT remodels adipocyte size (I) and restores expression of lipid metabolism genes (J) (n ≥ 4). All data are expressed as mean ± SEM. *P < 0.05. All metabolic cage measurements are presented on a per mouse basis. eWAT, epididymal WAT; fm, fat mass; IHC, immunohistochemistry; lbm, lean body mass; tbm, total body mass. Figure 3. miR-30a expression in iWAT of DIO mice improves energy balance. Body composition (A) and fat depot mass (normalized to body weight) (B) of DIO mice ectopically expressing Adv-GFP or Adv-miR-30a in iWAT. C: Energy expenditure (heat) during two complete 12-h light-dark cycles 11 days after local expression of Adv-GFP or Adv-miR-30a in iWAT of DIO mice. Average oxygen consumption (VO2) (D), carbon dioxide production (VCO2) (E), and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) (F) during the 12-h light-dark cycles were determined by Comprehensive Lab Animal Monitoring System (CLAMS). G: Cumulative food intake during CLAMS experiments (n = 5). H: Histology showing UCP1 immunostaining in iWAT of Adv-GFP or Adv-miR-30a DIO mice. Arrowheads indicate UCP1-positive cells. Scale bars, 50 μm. Adv-miR-30a expression in iWAT remodels adipocyte size (I) and restores expression of lipid metabolism genes (J) (n ≥ 4). All data are expressed as mean ± SEM. *P < 0.05. All metabolic cage measurements are presented on a per mouse basis. eWAT, epididymal WAT; fm, fat mass; IHC, immunohistochemistry; lbm, lean body mass; tbm, total body mass. More
Images
Relationships among adipose tissue insulin sensitivity, plasma fatty acid c...
Published: 15 July 2021
Figure 3 Relationships among adipose tissue insulin sensitivity, plasma fatty acid concentration, and muscle and hepatic insulin sensitivity. Relationships between the insulin sensitivity index of adipose tissue lipolysis and palmitate release from adipose tissue (A), the insulin sensitivity index of adipose tissue lipolysis and plasma fatty acid concentration (B), plasma fatty acid concentration and insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake rate (C), plasma fatty acid concentration and the hepatic insulin sensitivity index (D), the insulin sensitivity index of adipose tissue lipolysis and insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake rate (E), the insulin sensitivity index of adipose tissue lipolysis and the hepatic insulin sensitivity index (F), and the insulin sensitivity index of adipose tissue lipolysis and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake rate in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (G) in healthy lean participants and participants with obesity who were grouped according to insulin-simulated whole-body glucose uptake rate. ATISI, adipose tissue insulin sensitivity index for lipolysis (which assesses the inhibitory effect of insulin on adipose tissue lipolysis); FM, fat mass; HISI, hepatic insulin sensitivity index (which assesses the inhibitory effect of insulin on glucose production); OIR, obese insulin-resistant (Q3/4); OIS, obese insulin-sensitive (Q1). Figure 3. Relationships among adipose tissue insulin sensitivity, plasma fatty acid concentration, and muscle and hepatic insulin sensitivity. Relationships between the insulin sensitivity index of adipose tissue lipolysis and palmitate release from adipose tissue (A), the insulin sensitivity index of adipose tissue lipolysis and plasma fatty acid concentration (B), plasma fatty acid concentration and insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake rate (C), plasma fatty acid concentration and the hepatic insulin sensitivity index (D), the insulin sensitivity index of adipose tissue lipolysis and insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake rate (E), the insulin sensitivity index of adipose tissue lipolysis and the hepatic insulin sensitivity index (F), and the insulin sensitivity index of adipose tissue lipolysis and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake rate in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (G) in healthy lean participants and participants with obesity who were grouped according to insulin-simulated whole-body glucose uptake rate. ATISI, adipose tissue insulin sensitivity index for lipolysis (which assesses the inhibitory effect of insulin on adipose tissue lipolysis); FM, fat mass; HISI, hepatic insulin sensitivity index (which assesses the inhibitory effect of insulin on glucose production); OIR, obese insulin-resistant (Q3/4); OIS, obese insulin-sensitive (Q1). More
Images
Adipocyte <em>Becn1</em> deficiency promotes adipose tissue inflamm...
Published: 12 October 2020
Figure 2 Adipocyte Becn1 deficiency promotes adipose tissue inflammation. A: Histological analysis of eWAT from 10-week-old WT and AKO mice. WAT sections were examined by H&E staining. Black arrows indicate CLSs. Scale bars, 50 µm. B: Quantification of CLSs in WT and AKO mice (n = 8). C: The mRNA expression levels of F4/80, Cd11b, and Cd11c in eWAT from 10-week-old WT and AKO mice (n = 7). D: Representative immunofluorescence images of eWAT from 10-week-old WT and AKO mice. The eWAT sections were stained with CD11b (cyan) and CD11c (red) antibodies. Nucleus was stained with DAPI (blue). Scale bars, 75 µm. E: The mRNA expression of M1 and M2 macrophage–specific markers in eWAT from 10-week-old WT and AKO mice (n = 7). F: Total number of F4/80+CD11b+ SVCs per gram of eWAT was determined by flow cytometry in WT and AKO mice (n = 3). G: The percentages of CD11c+ and CD11cCD206+ in F4/80+CD11b+ cells were measured by flow cytometry in the SVCs of WT and AKO mice (n = 3). The qRT-PCR results were normalized to Ppia. Data are presented as mean ± SEM. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001; #P = 0.12. exp., expression; FM, fat mass. Figure 2. Adipocyte Becn1 deficiency promotes adipose tissue inflammation. A: Histological analysis of eWAT from 10-week-old WT and AKO mice. WAT sections were examined by H&E staining. Black arrows indicate CLSs. Scale bars, 50 µm. B: Quantification of CLSs in WT and AKO mice (n = 8). C: The mRNA expression levels of F4/80, Cd11b, and Cd11c in eWAT from 10-week-old WT and AKO mice (n = 7). D: Representative immunofluorescence images of eWAT from 10-week-old WT and AKO mice. The eWAT sections were stained with CD11b (cyan) and CD11c (red) antibodies. Nucleus was stained with DAPI (blue). Scale bars, 75 µm. E: The mRNA expression of M1 and M2 macrophage–specific markers in eWAT from 10-week-old WT and AKO mice (n = 7). F: Total number of F4/80+CD11b+ SVCs per gram of eWAT was determined by flow cytometry in WT and AKO mice (n = 3). G: The percentages of CD11c+ and CD11c−CD206+ in F4/80+CD11b+ cells were measured by flow cytometry in the SVCs of WT and AKO mice (n = 3). The qRT-PCR results were normalized to Ppia. Data are presented as mean ± SEM. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001; #P = 0.12. exp., expression; FM, fat mass. More
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 1997;46(3):456–462
Published: 01 March 1997
... tolerance test (OGTT), and blood lipids in the two groups before and after adjustments for total body and visceral adiposity. After adjusting for total body fat mass (FM), obese black women had significantly less VAT (by 32 cm2) and lower VAT/SCAT for any given WHR. The regression equations...
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 1997;46(10):1579–1585
Published: 01 October 1997
... = 26) and women (n = 28). The subjects, who ranged from lean to obese (BMI 19.6-41.0 kg/m2), underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) to measure fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM), computed tomography to measure cross-sectional abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose...
Meeting Abstracts
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2022;71(Supplement_1):344-OR
Published: 01 June 2022
... changes earlier in life on future NAFLD risk. Here, we examined associations of body composition trajectories from birth to early childhood with hepatic fat (HF) in early childhood in the Colorado Healthy Start cohort. Fat-free mass index (FFMI) , fat mass index (FMI) , and percent fat mass (%FM...
Meeting Abstracts
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2018;67(Supplement_1):2460-PUB
Published: 01 July 2018
... to the known health risks associated with central adiposity, we sought to understand if changes in regional distribution of fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) differ by surgical vs. medical WL. This 1:1:1 randomized trial among 15 persons with type 2 diabetes and BMI 30-39.9 kg/m2 compared changes...
Meeting Abstracts
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2019;68(Supplement_1):1601-P
Published: 01 June 2019
... (<5.7 kg/m2 in females; <7 kg/m2 in males). Waist circumference (wc)≥80 cm (females) and 90 cm (males) was used to define abdominal obesity. SO was defined as (1) co-existence of sarcopenia and obesity; or (2) fat mass to fat-free mass (FM/FFM) ratio>0.8. Cognition...
Meeting Abstracts
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2020;69(Supplement_1):731-P
Published: 01 June 2020
.../day) for 3 weeks. Weekly follow-ups were conducted and flash glucose monitoring sensors were used.≥50 g/day) or performed moderate-to-vigorous exercise ( Results: After the 3-week intervention, body mass index, total fat% and total fat mass (FM), waist circumference, visceral fat area...
Meeting Abstracts
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2019;68(Supplement_1):126-OR
Published: 01 June 2019
...) to identify four distinct fat mass (FM) growth patterns in early infancy. Here we examine their associations with adiposity and cardiometabolic outcomes at 5 years (y) of age. Methods: Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP) was used to repeatedly measure FM from 0-6 months of age in a cohort of 314 healthy...
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2010;59(7):1657–1666
Published: 22 April 2010
... is normalized to account for body mass differences. We 1) assessed the validity of ratio-based EE normalization involving division of EE by either total body mass (TBM) or lean body mass (LBM), 2) compared the independent contributions of LBM and fat mass (FM) to EE, and 3...
Includes: Supplementary data
Meeting Abstracts
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2021;70(Supplement_1):201-OR
Published: 01 June 2021
...) and 2.9± 0.4% decrease in fat mass(FM) while the HC group had a 1.9±0.3% LM and 3.3±0.9 % FM decrease respectively. The HP diet demonstrated improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity with 100% remission of T2D to NGT and a significant decrease in inflammatory cytokines. Disclosure F. B...
Meeting Abstracts
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2020;69(Supplement_1):1245-P
Published: 01 June 2020
... and offspring adiposity during later life is independent of neonatal adiposity is unclear. In a prospective study of 544 mother-child pairs in the Healthy Start Study, we estimated the total effect of maternal HbA1c on childhood fat mass (FM) %, and the direct effect independent of neonatal FM %. We measured...
Meeting Abstracts
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 1999;48(4):839–847
Published: 01 April 1999
.... VO2max was unaltered with WL (39.2 +/- 0.8 vs. 39.8 +/- 1.1 ml x fat-free mass [FFM](-1) x min(-1)). The WL intervention achieved significant decreases in weight (100.2 +/- 2.6 to 85.5 +/- 2.1 kg), BMI (34.3 +/- 0.6 to 29.3 +/- 0.6 kg/m2), total fat mass (FM) (36.9 +/- 1.5 to 26.1 +/- 1.3 kg), percent...
Meeting Abstracts
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2018;67(Supplement_1):342-OR
Published: 01 July 2018
... in 351 umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples within the Healthy Start Study, a well-characterized prebirth cohort that is following mother-infant pairs from pregnancy-early childhood. The primary objective was to test if DNA methylation at birth was associated with fat mass (FM) gains and infant growth...
Meeting Abstracts
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2018;67(Supplement_1):2078-P
Published: 01 July 2018
... obese women (32 ± 6 year, 34.5 ± 3.1 kg/m2, 43.1 ± 5.5 kg fat mass (FM)) and a well-matched cohort of fifteen obese men (29 ± 6 year, 34.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2, 42.0 ± 7.8 kg FM) underwent an MRI scan during which 5mm axial slices were acquired from the abdominal region. Using 3D Slicer...
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2012;61(11):2734–2742
Published: 16 October 2012
... are rapidly rising, caloric restriction remains one of the few safe therapies. Here we tested the hypothesis that obesity-associated disorders are caused by increased adipose tissue as opposed to excess dietary lipids. Fat mass (FM) of lean C57B6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD; FMC mice) was “clamped” to match...
Includes: Supplementary data