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mtdna-mitochondrial-dna

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Molecular mechanism by which HFHSD leads to hepatic insulin resistance and ...
Published: 31 December 2014
Figure 5 Molecular mechanism by which HFHSD leads to hepatic insulin resistance and imeglimin’s action mode. A: HFHSD increases intracellular lipids (triglyceride and DAG), leading to alterations of mitochondrial function, which results in inhibition of insulin signaling. B: Imeglimin improves mitochondrial function by modulating mitochondrial lipid composition, increasing mitochondrial respiration associated with energy waste in succinate, decreasing ROS production, restoring CIII activity, decreasing CI activity, and reorienting oxidative fluxes to fatty acid oxidation. As a consequence, imeglimin leads to improved insulin signaling and decreased liver steatosis, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance. CIV, complex IV; CoQ, coenzyme Q; CytC, cytochrome c; FADH2, flavin adenine dinucleotide; FFA, free fatty acid; IMM, inner mitochondrial membrane; IRS, insulin receptor substrate; JNK, Jun NH2-terminal kinase; mtDNA, mitochondrial DNA; OMM, outer mitochondrial membrane; PKC, protein kinase C; Ser-Thre, serine-threonine; TG, triglyceride. Figure 5. Molecular mechanism by which HFHSD leads to hepatic insulin resistance and imeglimin’s action mode. A: HFHSD increases intracellular lipids (triglyceride and DAG), leading to alterations of mitochondrial function, which results in inhibition of insulin signaling. B: Imeglimin improves mitochondrial function by modulating mitochondrial lipid composition, increasing mitochondrial respiration associated with energy waste in succinate, decreasing ROS production, restoring CIII activity, decreasing CI activity, and reorienting oxidative fluxes to fatty acid oxidation. As a consequence, imeglimin leads to improved insulin signaling and decreased liver steatosis, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance. CIV, complex IV; CoQ, coenzyme Q; CytC, cytochrome c; FADH2, flavin adenine dinucleotide; FFA, free fatty acid; IMM, inner mitochondrial membrane; IRS, insulin receptor substrate; JNK, Jun NH2-terminal kinase; mtDNA, mitochondrial DNA; OMM, outer mitochondrial membrane; PKC, protein kinase C; Ser-Thre, serine-threonine; TG, triglyceride. More
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 1997;46(8):1291–1296
Published: 01 August 1997
... elucidated, a potential location for injury is mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Therefore, experiments were initiated to evaluate damage to mtDNA caused by NO. Both exogenous NO generation (spermine/NO adduct [sper/NO]) and endogenous production of NO (IL-1β) were studied. To study the effects of exogenously...
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<span class="search-highlight">Mitochondrial</span> <span class="search-highlight">DNA</span> copy number (<span class="search-highlight">mtDNA</span>). Baseline <span class="search-highlight">mitochondrial</span> <span class="search-highlight">mtDNA</span> copy nu...
Published: 15 October 2009
FIG. 4. Mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA). Baseline mitochondrial mtDNA copy numbers assessed using primers and probes directed to cytochrome B normalized to 28 s. Data are presented as means ± SE. FIG. 4. Mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA). Baseline mitochondrial mtDNA copy numbers asses... More
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 1997;46(10):1567–1571
Published: 01 October 1997
...Tetsuro Kobayashi; Koji Nakanishi; Hirofumi Nakase; Hiroshi Kajio; Minoru Okubo; Toshio Murase; Kinori Kosáka Changes in the pancreas of diabetic patients with the A-to-G mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation at nucleotide position 3243 base pair (bp) have not previously been described. The clinical...
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2002;51(7):2317–2320
Published: 01 July 2002
...Alan T.W. Choo-Kang; Stephen Lynn; Geoffrey A. Taylor; Mark E. Daly; Sarbpreet S. Sihota; Teressa M. Wardell; Patrick F. Chinnery; Douglass M. Turnbull; Mark Walker For any mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation, the ratio of mutant to wild-type mtDNA (% heteroplasmy) varies across tissues, with low...
Includes: Supplementary data
Meeting Abstracts
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2000;49(7):1269–1272
Published: 01 July 2000
...M Tawata; J I Hayashi; K Isobe; E Ohkubo; M Ohtaka; J Chen; K Aida; T Onaya From a family of 16 diabetic patients with typical maternal inheritance, we investigated a 69-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes. The proband showed no major deletions in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Direct sequencing...
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2004;53(suppl_1):S103–S109
Published: 01 February 2004
...J. Antonie Maassen; Leen. M. ‘t Hart; Einar van Essen; Rob J. Heine; Giel Nijpels; Roshan S. Jahangir Tafrechi; Anton K. Raap; George M.C. Janssen; Herman H.P.J. Lemkes Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) associate with various disease states. A few mtDNA mutations strongly associate...
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 1994;43(6):746–751
Published: 01 June 1994
...Johannes M W van den Ouweland; Herman H P J Lemkes; Richard C Trembath; Richard Ross; Gilberto Velho; Daniel Cohen; Philippe Froguel; J Antonie Maassen We have recently reported an A to G transition at nucleotide position 3243 in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) tRNALeu(UUR)) gene...
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2002;51(5):1588–1595
Published: 01 May 2002
... mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and accumulation of mtDNA with a 4,834-bp deletion in kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. At 8 weeks after the onset of diabetes, levels of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), which is a marker of oxidative DNA damage, were significantly increased in mtDNA from...
Meeting Abstracts
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 1999;48(3):628–634
Published: 01 March 1999
.... An alternative approach is to study mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages. The hypervariable region 1 of the rapidly evolving noncoding section of mtDNA is suitable for investigating maternal ancestry and has been used extensively to study the origins of human racial groups. We have sequenced this 347-bp section...
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 1998;47(2):276–277
Published: 01 February 1998
... transmission of mitochondria is exclu- mtDNA mutation at 3243 (12) and deletion of 10.4 kb (13) sively maternal (3), mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations were detected as previously reported. For direct sequencing, have been implicated in the maternal inheritance of dia- the appropriate locations of the mtDNA...
Meeting Abstracts
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 1998;47(11):1800–1802
Published: 01 November 1998
.... Turnbull Defects of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have A3243G tRNALeu(UUR) mutation (4), we gave a questionnaire recently been recognized as a cause of diabetes to all our patients about a possible maternal family history (1,2). The mitochondrial genome is the only of diabetes and/or neuromuscular disease. Our...
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2008;57(5):1166–1175
Published: 01 May 2008
... were matched for age, BMI, and sex. The primary comparisons were insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity for oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) by measuring mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA), OXPHOS gene transcripts, citrate synthase...
Includes: Supplementary data
Meeting Abstracts
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2021;70(Supplement_1):1152-P
Published: 01 June 2021
...LARYSA YUZEFOVYCH; VIKTOR M. PASTUKH; LYUDMILA RACHEK Ogg1 (8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-1) is a DNA glycosylase mediating the first step in the base excision repair which removes 8-oxoguanine and repairs oxidized nuclear and mitochondrial (mtDNA). Obesity-induced mtDNA damage heightens...
Meeting Abstracts
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2000;49(11):1849–1855
Published: 01 November 2000
...N Druzhyna; M E Smulson; S P LeDoux; G L Wilson This study was designed to test the hypothesis that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) plays a role in the repair of damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). A rat insulinoma cell line was transfected with a PARP antisense vector that was under...
Meeting Abstracts
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2021;70(Supplement_1):391-P
Published: 01 June 2021
..., mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) activation inhibits mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) release into the cytoplasm and suppresses stimulator of interferon genes (STING)-mediated inflammation in renal proximal tubular cells. Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, is recognized...
Meeting Abstracts
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2018;67(Supplement_1):235-LB
Published: 01 July 2018
...LARYSA YUZEFOVYCH; MICHELE SCHULER; HYE LIM NOH; SUJIN SUK; JASON K. KIM; LYUDMILA RACHEK Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance. The mtDNA is highly specialized and encodes for proteins essential for energy metabolism. Also, mtDNA damage...
Meeting Abstracts
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2019;68(Supplement_1):265-LB
Published: 01 June 2019
...LARYSA YUZEFOVYCH; LYUDMILA RACHEK Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage heightens mitochondrial oxidative stress, which is very critical for the development of insulin resistance. OGG1 (8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-1) is a DNA glycosylase mediating the first step in the base excision repair which...
Meeting Abstracts
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 2018;67(Supplement_1):239-OR
Published: 01 July 2018
... to modulate mitochondrial metabolism. In diabetes, retinal mitochondria are swollen, respiration is impaired, Mfn2 is decreased and mtDNA is damaged. Diabetes also facilitates epigenetic modifications, altering gene expressions without changing their DNA sequences. This study aims to investigate the role...
Journal Articles
Journal: Diabetes
Diabetes 1994;43(2):220–224
Published: 01 February 1994
...- munoassay; IRI, immunoreactive insulin; mtDNA, mitochondrial DNA; bp, base pair; STZ, streptozocin. 220 DIABETES, VOL. 43, FEBRUARY 1994 D. GAUGUIER AND ASSOCIATES supplier (Iffa-Credo, Orleans, France), were used as sites for the enzymes PvuW (positions 6,273 and 7,198) control nondiabetic rats. A genetic...