For primary care providers, using insulin can present challenges that can be met by a straightforward approach using the following principles. Depending on when it is injected, each component of the insulin regimen has a maximal effect on a specific period of the 24-hour cycle (e.g., overnight, morning, afternoon, or evening). The glucose pattern in that period determines whether the dose of that component of the insulin regimen requires adjusting. Regarding which insulin types and insulin regimens to use, human insulin (NPH and regular) is as effective as analog insulins, and a two-injection intensified insulin regimen is as effective as a four-injection regimen.

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