Enteral nutrition (EN) and parenteral nutrition (PN) increase the risk of hyperglycemia and adverse outcomes, including mortality, in patients with and without diabetes. A blood glucose target range of 140–180 mg/dL is recommended for hospitalized patients receiving artificial nutrition. Using a diabetes-specific EN formula, lowering the dextrose content, and using a hypocaloric PN formula have all been shown to prevent hyperglycemia and associated adverse outcomes. Insulin, given either subcutaneously or as a continuous infusion, is the mainstay of treatment for hyperglycemia. However, no subcutaneous insulin regimen has been shown to be superior to others. This review summarizes the evidence on and provides recommendations for the treatment of EN- and PN-associated hyperglycemia and offers strategies for hypoglycemia prevention. The authors also highlight their institution’s protocol for the safe use of insulin in the PN bag. Randomized controlled trials evaluating safety and efficacy of targeted insulin therapy synchronized with different types of EN or PN delivery are needed.

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