Studies in populations with type 1 diabetes highlight racial/ethnic disparities in the use of diabetes technology; however, little is known about disparities among those with type 2 diabetes. This project investigates the racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in diabetes technology awareness and use in adults with type 2 diabetes in the ambulatory setting.


Adults ≥40 years of age with type 2 diabetes in ambulatory care were invited to participate via an e-mail link to a de-identified REDCap (Research Electronic Data Capture) questionnaire. Variables, including awareness and use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and insulin pumps, were summarized descriptively using frequencies and percentages and were compared across racial/ethnic groups, education level, and income using Pearson χ2 or Fisher exact tests.


The study included 116 participants, most of whom (62%) were White, elderly Medicare recipients. Compared with White participants, those of racially/ethnically minoritized groups were less likely to be aware of CGM (P = 0.013) or insulin pumps (P = 0.001). Participants with a high school education or less were also less likely to be aware of insulin pumps (P = 0.041). Interestingly, neither awareness nor use of CGM or insulin pumps was found to be associated with income.


This cross-sectional analysis suggests that racially/ethnically minoritized groups and individuals with lower education have less awareness of CGM or insulin pumps.

Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. More information is available at
You do not currently have access to this content.