M.H. and L.K.V. contributed equally as co-first authors.


The aims of this study were to assess domains of executive function in relation to diabetes management and glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes and to compare adolescent self-report and parent proxy-report of adolescent executive function.


Adolescents with type 1 diabetes (N = 169, 46% female, age 15.9 ± 1.3 years) and their parents completed self-report and parent proxy-report versions of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF).


Self-report and parent proxy-report BRIEF T scores were moderately to strongly correlated; parent proxy scores were significantly higher than self-report scores. Executive function problems (Global Executive Composite T score ≥60) occurred in 9% of adolescents by self-report and 26% by parent proxy-report. For almost all Metacognition Index scales, elevated (T score ≥60) parent-proxy scores were associated with lower adherence, lower adolescent diabetes self-efficacy, and more parent involvement in diabetes management. Elevated scores on several Metacognition Index scales were associated with less pump use (Plan/Organize by self-report, Initiate by parent proxy-report, and Monitor by parent proxy-report) and higher A1C (Plan/Organize by self-report and parent proxy-report and Organization of Materials by parent proxy-report). The only significant associations for the Behavioral Regulation Index scales occurred for adherence (by parent proxy-report) and diabetes self-efficacy (by self-report and parent-report).


Adolescents with type 1 diabetes who have problems with metacognition may need additional support for diabetes self-management.

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