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TABLE 2

Substrates and hormones

Type 2 diabetic subjects
Control subjects
16 h20 h24 h16 h20 h24 h
Ketone bodies 
(β-hydroxybutyrate + acetoacetate)  (μmol/l) 
 Fasting 348 ± 73* 411 ± 82 499 ± 101 140 ± 23 300 ± 40§ 623 ± 139 
 Fasting and NA 210 ± 35 126 ± 36# 875 ± 131 328 ± 94 161 ± 11** 1,281 ± 353 
Precursors (μmol/l) 
 Fasting 2,269 ± 169 2,065 ± 142 2,052 ± 103 1,832 ± 114 1,804 ± 122 1,847 ± 84 
 Fasting and NA 2,112 ± 248 2,235 ± 241 2,344 ± 168 1,830 ± 93 1,797 ± 100 1,829 ± 96 
Glucagon (pg/ml) 
 Fasting 68 ± 5 66 ± 7 72 ± 8 60 ± 8 66 ± 7 63 ± 9 
 Fasting and NA 76 ± 10 70 ± 9 90 ± 9 57 ± 5 58 ± 4 72 ± 8 
Epinephrine (pg/ml) 
 Fasting 18 ± 5 23 ± 4 22 ± 3 17 ± 3 20 ± 4 25 ± 4 
 Fasting and NA 24 ± 4 37 ± 8 30 ± 4 28 ± 5 34 ± 8 77 ± 42 
Cortisol (nmol/l) 
 Fasting 320 ± 26†† 275 ± 23 316 ± 58 225 ± 31 168 ± 16 131 ± 23 
 Fasting and NA 362 ± 54 369 ± 54 470 ± 165 203 ± 33 260 ± 55 304 ± 138 
Type 2 diabetic subjects
Control subjects
16 h20 h24 h16 h20 h24 h
Ketone bodies 
(β-hydroxybutyrate + acetoacetate)  (μmol/l) 
 Fasting 348 ± 73* 411 ± 82 499 ± 101 140 ± 23 300 ± 40§ 623 ± 139 
 Fasting and NA 210 ± 35 126 ± 36# 875 ± 131 328 ± 94 161 ± 11** 1,281 ± 353 
Precursors (μmol/l) 
 Fasting 2,269 ± 169 2,065 ± 142 2,052 ± 103 1,832 ± 114 1,804 ± 122 1,847 ± 84 
 Fasting and NA 2,112 ± 248 2,235 ± 241 2,344 ± 168 1,830 ± 93 1,797 ± 100 1,829 ± 96 
Glucagon (pg/ml) 
 Fasting 68 ± 5 66 ± 7 72 ± 8 60 ± 8 66 ± 7 63 ± 9 
 Fasting and NA 76 ± 10 70 ± 9 90 ± 9 57 ± 5 58 ± 4 72 ± 8 
Epinephrine (pg/ml) 
 Fasting 18 ± 5 23 ± 4 22 ± 3 17 ± 3 20 ± 4 25 ± 4 
 Fasting and NA 24 ± 4 37 ± 8 30 ± 4 28 ± 5 34 ± 8 77 ± 42 
Cortisol (nmol/l) 
 Fasting 320 ± 26†† 275 ± 23 316 ± 58 225 ± 31 168 ± 16 131 ± 23 
 Fasting and NA 362 ± 54 369 ± 54 470 ± 165 203 ± 33 260 ± 55 304 ± 138 

Data are means ± SE.

*

P < 0.03 vs. control subjects

P < 0.01 vs. fasting and NA

P < 0.01 vs 24 h

§

P < 0.02 vs. fasting and NA

P < 0.03 vs. 20 h

P < 0.05 vs. 24 h

#

P < 0.001 vs. 24 h

**

P < 0.02 vs. 24 h

††

P < 0.03 s. control subjects.

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