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TABLE 1

Characteristics of the study subjects

CharacteristicType 2 diabetic subjectsNormal control subjects
n 2,201 1,212 
M/F 995/1,206 517/695 
Age (years) 60.9 ± 11.7 (2,201) 71.3 ± 8.0 (1,212) 
Age at onset of diabetes (years) 47.1 ± 12.2 (2,081) 
BMI (kg/m223.2 ± 3.6 (2,144) 22.4 ± 3.3 (1,126) 
Maximum BMI (kg/m226.8 ± 4.2 (1,425) 
Waist-to-hip ratio 0.89 ± 0.08 (241) 
HbA1c (%) 7.8 ± 1.8 (2,114) 5.0 ± 0.3 (1,029) 
FPG (mg/dl) 157 ± 57 (1,598) 94 ± 11 (989) 
f-IRI (μU/ml) 6.78 ± 4.73 (577) 
HOMA-R (mol · μU · l−22.54 ± 1.97 (577) 
HOMA-β (%) 36.2 ± 34.1 (577) 
Serum total cholesterol (mg/dl) 203 ± 40 (1,586) 
Serum triglycerides (mg/dl) 142 ± 133 (1,444) 
Hypertension prevalence 45.5 (1,829) 
Retinopathy prevalence 43.3 (1,626) 
Nephropathy prevalence 37.3 (1,632) 
Neuropathy prevalence 40.7 (1,546) 
Treatment for diabetes 2,176 
 Diet   475 
 Oral hypoglycemic  agents   985 
 Insulin   716 
CharacteristicType 2 diabetic subjectsNormal control subjects
n 2,201 1,212 
M/F 995/1,206 517/695 
Age (years) 60.9 ± 11.7 (2,201) 71.3 ± 8.0 (1,212) 
Age at onset of diabetes (years) 47.1 ± 12.2 (2,081) 
BMI (kg/m223.2 ± 3.6 (2,144) 22.4 ± 3.3 (1,126) 
Maximum BMI (kg/m226.8 ± 4.2 (1,425) 
Waist-to-hip ratio 0.89 ± 0.08 (241) 
HbA1c (%) 7.8 ± 1.8 (2,114) 5.0 ± 0.3 (1,029) 
FPG (mg/dl) 157 ± 57 (1,598) 94 ± 11 (989) 
f-IRI (μU/ml) 6.78 ± 4.73 (577) 
HOMA-R (mol · μU · l−22.54 ± 1.97 (577) 
HOMA-β (%) 36.2 ± 34.1 (577) 
Serum total cholesterol (mg/dl) 203 ± 40 (1,586) 
Serum triglycerides (mg/dl) 142 ± 133 (1,444) 
Hypertension prevalence 45.5 (1,829) 
Retinopathy prevalence 43.3 (1,626) 
Nephropathy prevalence 37.3 (1,632) 
Neuropathy prevalence 40.7 (1,546) 
Treatment for diabetes 2,176 
 Diet   475 
 Oral hypoglycemic  agents   985 
 Insulin   716 

Data are n, means ± SD (n), or % (n). Criteria for diagnosis of hypertension and diabetic complications are described in research design and methods.

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