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TABLE 2

Fatty acid induction of necrosis and apoptosis in β-cells

Exposure time (mmol/l)Cytotoxicity
2 days
8 days
NecrosisApoptosisNecrosisApoptosis
Oleate 0.125 <5 <5 <5 7 ± 2 
 0.250 <5 <5 10 ± 2* 11 ± 2 
 0.500  9 ± 2* <5 14 ± 2 25 ± 4 
Palmitate 0.125 <5 <5 7 ± 2 <5 
 0.250  9 ± 2* <5 9 ± 2 7 ± 2 
 0.500 33 ± 5  7 ± 2* 33 ± 5 26 ± 3 
Bromopalmitate 0.125 <5 12 ± 2 <5 52 ± 4 
 0.250 <5 20 ± 3* <5 66 ± 3 
 0.500 35 ± 5* 27 ± 4* 52 ± 6 24 ± 4* 
Exposure time (mmol/l)Cytotoxicity
2 days
8 days
NecrosisApoptosisNecrosisApoptosis
Oleate 0.125 <5 <5 <5 7 ± 2 
 0.250 <5 <5 10 ± 2* 11 ± 2 
 0.500  9 ± 2* <5 14 ± 2 25 ± 4 
Palmitate 0.125 <5 <5 7 ± 2 <5 
 0.250  9 ± 2* <5 9 ± 2 7 ± 2 
 0.500 33 ± 5  7 ± 2* 33 ± 5 26 ± 3 
Bromopalmitate 0.125 <5 12 ± 2 <5 52 ± 4 
 0.250 <5 20 ± 3* <5 66 ± 3 
 0.500 35 ± 5* 27 ± 4* 52 ± 6 24 ± 4* 

Data are means ± SE for n experiments. Apoptosis and necrosis index for FFAs after 2 (n = 5–8) and 8 (n = 5–13) days of culture of β-cells in Ham’s F10 medium with 6 mmol/l glucose and 1% bovine serum albumin. Statistical significance (FFA conditions vs. control) was calculated by analysis of variance, followed by paired t test with the Bonferroni correction.

*

P < 0.01;

P < 0.001;

P < 0.05.

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