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TABLE 4

Values for muscle variables before and after control or exercise training periods

VariableControl
Exercise
BeforeAfterBeforeAfter
Citrate synthase activity 24.0 ± 1.2 25.1 ± 1.2 24.1 ± 0.8 35.1 ± 1.3* 
Cytochrome c oxidase activity 6.3 ± 0.6 7.3 ± 0.8 7.1 ± 0.5 13.3 ± 0.7* 
COX4 mRNA 1.00 ± 0.08 1.02 ± 0.09 0.92 ± 0.06 1.54 ± 0.13* 
ND4 mRNA 0.76 ± 0.06 0.77 ± 0.06 0.73 ± 0.04 1.19 ± 0.09* 
PCG-1 mRNA 1.66 ± 0.15 1.49 ± 0.13 1.48 ± 0.10 2.29 ± 0.15* 
NRF-1 mRNA 0.83 ± 0.10 0.80 ± 0.10 0.71 ± 0.06 0.82 ± 0.07* 
TFAM mRNA 0.91 ± 0.15 0.99 ± 0.14 0.81 ± 0.07 1.50 ± 0.13* 
GLUT4 mRNA 0.87 ± 0.07 0.92 ± 0.08 0.82 ± 0.06 1.25 ± 0.07* 
VariableControl
Exercise
BeforeAfterBeforeAfter
Citrate synthase activity 24.0 ± 1.2 25.1 ± 1.2 24.1 ± 0.8 35.1 ± 1.3* 
Cytochrome c oxidase activity 6.3 ± 0.6 7.3 ± 0.8 7.1 ± 0.5 13.3 ± 0.7* 
COX4 mRNA 1.00 ± 0.08 1.02 ± 0.09 0.92 ± 0.06 1.54 ± 0.13* 
ND4 mRNA 0.76 ± 0.06 0.77 ± 0.06 0.73 ± 0.04 1.19 ± 0.09* 
PCG-1 mRNA 1.66 ± 0.15 1.49 ± 0.13 1.48 ± 0.10 2.29 ± 0.15* 
NRF-1 mRNA 0.83 ± 0.10 0.80 ± 0.10 0.71 ± 0.06 0.82 ± 0.07* 
TFAM mRNA 0.91 ± 0.15 0.99 ± 0.14 0.81 ± 0.07 1.50 ± 0.13* 
GLUT4 mRNA 0.87 ± 0.07 0.92 ± 0.08 0.82 ± 0.06 1.25 ± 0.07* 

Data are means ± SE. Enzyme activities are given as μmol·min−1·g−1 tissue; mRNA levels, as arbitrary units after normalization to 28S rRNA.

*

Before-to-after difference within group, P < 0.001 for all variables except NRF-1, which was P < 0.02. None of the changes in the exercise group had a significant interaction with age or sex.

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