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TABLE 1

A comparison of diabetes risk factors between case and control subjects*

Case subjectsControl subjectsP
n 642 995  
Age (years) 54.51 ± 6.83 54.40 ± 6.81 0.74 
BMI (kg/m230.45 ± 5.62 27.22 ± 5.78 <0.001 
Physical activity (metabolic equivalent hours/week) 12.40 ± 15.31 14.97 ± 17.98 0.002 
Alcohol intake (g/day) 3.68 ± 6.93 6.07 ± 9.30 <0.001 
Waist circumference (in) 35.48 ± 4.94 32.13 ± 4.87 <0.001 
Ethnicity (Caucasian) 94.8 95.8 0.39 
Current smoker 13.9 12.4 0.38 
Postmenopausal status 75.7 74.1 0.46 
Family history of diabetes (first-degree relatives) 47.5 22.1 <0.001 
History of hypertension 48.6 28.6 <0.001 
History of high cholesterol 32.4 24.5 0.0005 
Biomarkers    
 Insulin (μU/ml) 13.67 ± 9.08 10.55 ± 6.22 <0.001 
 C-peptide (pm/ml) 0.99 ± 0.70 0.61 ± 0.40 <0.001 
 Proinsulin (fmol/ml) 26.51 ± 22.14 11.69 ± 8.88 <0.001 
Case subjectsControl subjectsP
n 642 995  
Age (years) 54.51 ± 6.83 54.40 ± 6.81 0.74 
BMI (kg/m230.45 ± 5.62 27.22 ± 5.78 <0.001 
Physical activity (metabolic equivalent hours/week) 12.40 ± 15.31 14.97 ± 17.98 0.002 
Alcohol intake (g/day) 3.68 ± 6.93 6.07 ± 9.30 <0.001 
Waist circumference (in) 35.48 ± 4.94 32.13 ± 4.87 <0.001 
Ethnicity (Caucasian) 94.8 95.8 0.39 
Current smoker 13.9 12.4 0.38 
Postmenopausal status 75.7 74.1 0.46 
Family history of diabetes (first-degree relatives) 47.5 22.1 <0.001 
History of hypertension 48.6 28.6 <0.001 
History of high cholesterol 32.4 24.5 0.0005 
Biomarkers    
 Insulin (μU/ml) 13.67 ± 9.08 10.55 ± 6.22 <0.001 
 C-peptide (pm/ml) 0.99 ± 0.70 0.61 ± 0.40 <0.001 
 Proinsulin (fmol/ml) 26.51 ± 22.14 11.69 ± 8.88 <0.001 

Data are means ± SD or percent.

*

Case and control subjects were matched for age, fasting status, and race.

The biomarker analyses included 432 case and 398 control subjects.

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