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TABLE 1

Baseline characteristics of the study participants (n = 744)

VariablesControl subjectsCase subjectsP
n 496 248 — 
Sex (% men) 62 62 NS* 
Age (years) 65 ± 3 66 ± 4 NS* 
BMI (kg/m226 ± 3 29 ± 4 <0.001 
Waist circumference (cm) 93 ± 13 101 ± 14 <0.001 
Duration of diabetes (years) 13 ± 3 14 ± 3 NS 
Oral hypoglycemic agents (%) 61.9 63.3 NS 
Insulin treatment only (%) 12 14 NS 
Current smokers (%) 20 22 NS 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 124 ± 13 131 ± 15 <0.001 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 79 ± 12 83 ± 10 <0.001 
A1C (%) 6.9 ± 0.8 7.2 ± 0.9 0.059 
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.24 ± 0.6 1.62 ± 0.9 <0.001 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.39 ± 0.3 1.25 ± 0.4 <0.001 
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.29 ± 0.4 3.27 ± 0.5 NS 
AST (units/l) 20 ± 10 26 ± 12 <0.01 
ALT (units/l) 23 ± 12 33 ± 14 <0.001 
GGT (units/l) 27 ± 14 38 ± 16 <0.001 
Microalbuminuria (%) 20 23 NS 
ATP III–defined metabolic syndrome (%) 52 73 <0.001 
NAFLD (%) 56 94 <0.001 
VariablesControl subjectsCase subjectsP
n 496 248 — 
Sex (% men) 62 62 NS* 
Age (years) 65 ± 3 66 ± 4 NS* 
BMI (kg/m226 ± 3 29 ± 4 <0.001 
Waist circumference (cm) 93 ± 13 101 ± 14 <0.001 
Duration of diabetes (years) 13 ± 3 14 ± 3 NS 
Oral hypoglycemic agents (%) 61.9 63.3 NS 
Insulin treatment only (%) 12 14 NS 
Current smokers (%) 20 22 NS 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 124 ± 13 131 ± 15 <0.001 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 79 ± 12 83 ± 10 <0.001 
A1C (%) 6.9 ± 0.8 7.2 ± 0.9 0.059 
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.24 ± 0.6 1.62 ± 0.9 <0.001 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.39 ± 0.3 1.25 ± 0.4 <0.001 
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.29 ± 0.4 3.27 ± 0.5 NS 
AST (units/l) 20 ± 10 26 ± 12 <0.01 
ALT (units/l) 23 ± 12 33 ± 14 <0.001 
GGT (units/l) 27 ± 14 38 ± 16 <0.001 
Microalbuminuria (%) 20 23 NS 
ATP III–defined metabolic syndrome (%) 52 73 <0.001 
NAFLD (%) 56 94 <0.001 

Data are the means ± SD, unless otherwise indicated. Differences were assessed by the unpaired t test (for normally distributed variables) and by the χ2 test (for categorical variables).

*

Matched variables.

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