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TABLE 1

Features of celiac disease and type 1 diabetes

CharacteristicCeliac diseaseType 1 diabetes
Genetics HLA DQ2 (>85%)  Account for ∼50% HLA DQ8  (>90%)  Account for ∼50% 
 (HLA DQ8)   HLA DQ2     
 Non-HLA genes, account for ∼50%   Non-HLA genes, account for ∼50%     
Trigger of target cell damage Infection?   Infection?     
Driving antigen Gluten   Dietary?     
Autoantibodies Reticulin antibodies, endomysial antibodies, tissue transglutaminase antibodies   Insulin autoantibodies, GAD and IA-2 antibodies     
Outcome 1 of 15–20 with HLA-conferred susceptibility progresses to clinical disease   1 of 15–20 with HLA-conferred susceptibility progresses to clinical disease     
CharacteristicCeliac diseaseType 1 diabetes
Genetics HLA DQ2 (>85%)  Account for ∼50% HLA DQ8  (>90%)  Account for ∼50% 
 (HLA DQ8)   HLA DQ2     
 Non-HLA genes, account for ∼50%   Non-HLA genes, account for ∼50%     
Trigger of target cell damage Infection?   Infection?     
Driving antigen Gluten   Dietary?     
Autoantibodies Reticulin antibodies, endomysial antibodies, tissue transglutaminase antibodies   Insulin autoantibodies, GAD and IA-2 antibodies     
Outcome 1 of 15–20 with HLA-conferred susceptibility progresses to clinical disease   1 of 15–20 with HLA-conferred susceptibility progresses to clinical disease     
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