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TABLE 3

Arterial blood lactate, alanine, and glycerol levels and net hind-limb balance in overnight-fasted conscious dogs after insulin administration by inhalation (n = 7) or matched IVC infusion (n = 6)

t (min)Blood lactate level (μmol/l)
Net hind-limb lactate balance (μmol · kg−1 · min−1)
Blood alanine level (μmol/l)
Net hind-limb alanine balance (μmol · kg−1 · min−1)
Blood glycerol level (μmol/l)
Net hind-limb glycerol balance (μmol · kg−1 · min−1)
InhalationIVC infusionInhalationIVC infusionInhalationIVC infusionInhalationIVC infusionInhalationIVC infusionInhalationIVC infusion
−20 616 ± 77 691 ± 149 0.6 ± 1.9 −1.6 ± 3.0 348 ± 53 404 ± 6 1.2 ± 0.6 −0.4 ± 0.6 74 ± 6 59 ± 3 2.2 ± 1.0 1.5 ± 0.5 
1,168 ± 190 1,014 ± 305 −4.7 ± 3.7 −4.2 ± 4.6 544 ± 98 523 ± 84 0.9 ± 1.3 0.5 ± 1.0 13 ± 6 29 ± 9 1.3 ± 0.3 1.7 ± 0.7 
1,176 ± 127 1,456 ± 252 −5.5 ± 3.7 −9.8 ± 3.5 615 ± 76 624 ± 40 0.8 ± 1.1 −0.4 ± 0.9 19 ± 3 17 ± 2 1.2 ± 0.4 0.6 ± 0.1 
20 1,017 ± 109 1,107 ± 264 −4.5 ± 3.3 −3.1 ± 3.8 499 ± 79 551 ± 35 0.6 ± 0.6 −0.1 ± 1.0 30 ± 3 32 ± 7 1.0 ± 0.2 0.7 ± 0.3 
35 1,043 ± 125 996 ± 172 −6.4 ± 3.3 −1.8 ± 2.8 446 ± 67 514 ± 35 0.8 ± 0.5 0.8 ± 0.8 35 ± 5 26 ± 6 0.8 ± 0.3 0.7 ± 0.2 
65 959 ± 115 853 ± 132 −2.6 ± 3.0 −1.9 ± 1.9 353 ± 50 412 ± 33 0.7 ± 0.7 1.0 ± 1.0 21 ± 5 20 ± 5 0.5 ± 0.3 0.4 ± 0.2 
95 916 ± 110 862 ± 138 −1.2 ± 2.6 −1.5 ± 2.9 310 ± 43 372 ± 27 1.7 ± 0.8 1.8 ± 1.0 19 ± 6 21 ± 1 0.9 ± 0.3 0.6 ± 0.4 
125 841 ± 100 787 ± 127 −2.4 ± 1.7 −2.2 ± 2.6 295 ± 49 343 ± 23 0.8 ± 1.4 0.7 ± 0.9 22 ± 7 31 ± 3 0.8 ± 0.4 1.5 ± 0.7 
155 813 ± 140 661 ± 93 −0.1 ± 2.5 −0.8 ± 2.8 277 ± 45 320 ± 17 1.4 ± 0.8 1.5 ± 1.2 32 ± 13 41 ± 8 1.4 ± 0.5 1.8 ± 1.2 
185 998 ± 262 705 ± 108 −1.5 ± 2.7 −1.7 ± 2.9 318 ± 47 335 ± 16 0.7 ± 0.6 1.2 ± 0.5 54 ± 21 48 ± 9 1.0 ± 1.1 0.5 ± 0.4 
215 870 ± 155 787 ± 141 −3.6 ± 2.1 −4.4 ± 3.4 303 ± 43 374 ± 27 0.4 ± 0.5 0.2 ± 0.6 41 ± 9 55 ± 14 1.2 ± 0.4 1.3 ± 0.4 
245 1,001 ± 197 856 ± 178 −6.2 ± 3.0 −3.4 ± 2.1 349 ± 51 418 ± 30 0.4 ± 0.6 0.4 ± 0.7 51 ± 7 65 ± 9 1.9 ± 0.7 0.8 ± 0.2 
t (min)Blood lactate level (μmol/l)
Net hind-limb lactate balance (μmol · kg−1 · min−1)
Blood alanine level (μmol/l)
Net hind-limb alanine balance (μmol · kg−1 · min−1)
Blood glycerol level (μmol/l)
Net hind-limb glycerol balance (μmol · kg−1 · min−1)
InhalationIVC infusionInhalationIVC infusionInhalationIVC infusionInhalationIVC infusionInhalationIVC infusionInhalationIVC infusion
−20 616 ± 77 691 ± 149 0.6 ± 1.9 −1.6 ± 3.0 348 ± 53 404 ± 6 1.2 ± 0.6 −0.4 ± 0.6 74 ± 6 59 ± 3 2.2 ± 1.0 1.5 ± 0.5 
1,168 ± 190 1,014 ± 305 −4.7 ± 3.7 −4.2 ± 4.6 544 ± 98 523 ± 84 0.9 ± 1.3 0.5 ± 1.0 13 ± 6 29 ± 9 1.3 ± 0.3 1.7 ± 0.7 
1,176 ± 127 1,456 ± 252 −5.5 ± 3.7 −9.8 ± 3.5 615 ± 76 624 ± 40 0.8 ± 1.1 −0.4 ± 0.9 19 ± 3 17 ± 2 1.2 ± 0.4 0.6 ± 0.1 
20 1,017 ± 109 1,107 ± 264 −4.5 ± 3.3 −3.1 ± 3.8 499 ± 79 551 ± 35 0.6 ± 0.6 −0.1 ± 1.0 30 ± 3 32 ± 7 1.0 ± 0.2 0.7 ± 0.3 
35 1,043 ± 125 996 ± 172 −6.4 ± 3.3 −1.8 ± 2.8 446 ± 67 514 ± 35 0.8 ± 0.5 0.8 ± 0.8 35 ± 5 26 ± 6 0.8 ± 0.3 0.7 ± 0.2 
65 959 ± 115 853 ± 132 −2.6 ± 3.0 −1.9 ± 1.9 353 ± 50 412 ± 33 0.7 ± 0.7 1.0 ± 1.0 21 ± 5 20 ± 5 0.5 ± 0.3 0.4 ± 0.2 
95 916 ± 110 862 ± 138 −1.2 ± 2.6 −1.5 ± 2.9 310 ± 43 372 ± 27 1.7 ± 0.8 1.8 ± 1.0 19 ± 6 21 ± 1 0.9 ± 0.3 0.6 ± 0.4 
125 841 ± 100 787 ± 127 −2.4 ± 1.7 −2.2 ± 2.6 295 ± 49 343 ± 23 0.8 ± 1.4 0.7 ± 0.9 22 ± 7 31 ± 3 0.8 ± 0.4 1.5 ± 0.7 
155 813 ± 140 661 ± 93 −0.1 ± 2.5 −0.8 ± 2.8 277 ± 45 320 ± 17 1.4 ± 0.8 1.5 ± 1.2 32 ± 13 41 ± 8 1.4 ± 0.5 1.8 ± 1.2 
185 998 ± 262 705 ± 108 −1.5 ± 2.7 −1.7 ± 2.9 318 ± 47 335 ± 16 0.7 ± 0.6 1.2 ± 0.5 54 ± 21 48 ± 9 1.0 ± 1.1 0.5 ± 0.4 
215 870 ± 155 787 ± 141 −3.6 ± 2.1 −4.4 ± 3.4 303 ± 43 374 ± 27 0.4 ± 0.5 0.2 ± 0.6 41 ± 9 55 ± 14 1.2 ± 0.4 1.3 ± 0.4 
245 1,001 ± 197 856 ± 178 −6.2 ± 3.0 −3.4 ± 2.1 349 ± 51 418 ± 30 0.4 ± 0.6 0.4 ± 0.7 51 ± 7 65 ± 9 1.9 ± 0.7 0.8 ± 0.2 
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