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TABLE 1

Participant characteristics comparing those who did and did not develop diabetes after 5 years, the Ausdiab Study

Participants who did not develop diabetesParticipants who developed diabetesP
n 695 108  
Sex (% male) 295 (42.4) 53 (49.1) 0.19 
Family history of diabetes 165 (23.7) 33 (33.3) 0.04 
Hypertension present 306 (44.2) 59 (55.7) 0.08 
Hypertension medication 142 (20.5) 26 (24.5) 0.55 
Lipid-lowering medication 78 (11.2) 17 (15.7) 0.13 
Physical activity (≥150 min) 308 (44.6) 46 (43.4) 0.81 
Completed secondary schooling 324 (46.7) 41 (38.7) 0.12 
Glucose tolerance status   <0.001 
    NGT 239 (34.4) 7 (6.5)  
    IGT 399 (57.4) 92 (85.2)  
    IFG 57 (8.2) 9 (8.3)  
Smoking status   0.08 
    Current 60 (8.8) 13 (12.4)  
    Ex-smoker 213 (31.2) 41 (39.0)  
    Never smoked 409 (60.0) 51 (48.6)  
Retinopathy 23 (3.1) 5 (4.0) 0.64 
Age (years) 55.9 ± 12.9 57.7 ± 11.3 0.17 
FPG (mmol/l) 5.55 ± 0.55 5.99 ± 0.59 <0.001 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 133.5 ± 18.8 136.0 ± 16.8 0.19 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 70.5 ± 11.5 74.3 ± 12.4 0.002 
BMI (kg/m227.5 ± 5.0 30.2 ± 6.1 <0.001 
Waist circumference (cm) 92.1 ± 13.2 98.9 ± 15.2 <0.001 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.45 ± 0.39 1.31 ± 0.46 0.001 
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.50 ± 1.00 2.14 ± 1.62 <0.001 
Microalbumin-to-creatinine ratio (mg/mmol) 1.82 ± 6.44 2.45 ± 9.08 0.38 
Fasting insulin (μ/ml) 15.0 ± 9.8 19.4 ±11.5 <0.001 
Participants who did not develop diabetesParticipants who developed diabetesP
n 695 108  
Sex (% male) 295 (42.4) 53 (49.1) 0.19 
Family history of diabetes 165 (23.7) 33 (33.3) 0.04 
Hypertension present 306 (44.2) 59 (55.7) 0.08 
Hypertension medication 142 (20.5) 26 (24.5) 0.55 
Lipid-lowering medication 78 (11.2) 17 (15.7) 0.13 
Physical activity (≥150 min) 308 (44.6) 46 (43.4) 0.81 
Completed secondary schooling 324 (46.7) 41 (38.7) 0.12 
Glucose tolerance status   <0.001 
    NGT 239 (34.4) 7 (6.5)  
    IGT 399 (57.4) 92 (85.2)  
    IFG 57 (8.2) 9 (8.3)  
Smoking status   0.08 
    Current 60 (8.8) 13 (12.4)  
    Ex-smoker 213 (31.2) 41 (39.0)  
    Never smoked 409 (60.0) 51 (48.6)  
Retinopathy 23 (3.1) 5 (4.0) 0.64 
Age (years) 55.9 ± 12.9 57.7 ± 11.3 0.17 
FPG (mmol/l) 5.55 ± 0.55 5.99 ± 0.59 <0.001 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 133.5 ± 18.8 136.0 ± 16.8 0.19 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 70.5 ± 11.5 74.3 ± 12.4 0.002 
BMI (kg/m227.5 ± 5.0 30.2 ± 6.1 <0.001 
Waist circumference (cm) 92.1 ± 13.2 98.9 ± 15.2 <0.001 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.45 ± 0.39 1.31 ± 0.46 0.001 
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.50 ± 1.00 2.14 ± 1.62 <0.001 
Microalbumin-to-creatinine ratio (mg/mmol) 1.82 ± 6.44 2.45 ± 9.08 0.38 
Fasting insulin (μ/ml) 15.0 ± 9.8 19.4 ±11.5 <0.001 

Data are n (%) and means ± SD.

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