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TABLE 2

Results of IVGTT, hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and indirect calorimetry in male study participants before and after bed rest

Before bed rest
After bed rest
FDR groupCON groupFDR groupCON group
n 13 20 13 20 
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)     
    Basal 4.8 ± 0.4 4.6 ± 0.4 4.8 ± 0.3 4.6 ± 0.4 
    Insulin-stimulated state 5.2 ± 0.4 5.2 ± 0.3 5.2 ± 0.3 5.1 ± 0.3 
Fasting plasma insulin (pmol/l)*     
    Basal 32 ± 10 28 ± 10 51 ± 22 37 ± 18 
    Insulin-stimulated state 777 ± 126 769 ± 176 833 ± 160 832 ± 160 
Fasting plasma C-peptide (pmol/l)     
    Basal 522 ± 117 376 ± 168 678 ± 201 472 ± 187§ 
    Insulin-stimulated state 495 ± 156 323 ± 182 641 ± 238 412 ± 212§ 
Fasting plasma glycerol (μmol/l)*     
    Basal 65 ± 17 89 ± 35 67 ± 18 65 ± 28 
    Insulin-stimulated state 26 ± 8 27 ± 16 28 ± 11 27 ± 10 
Fasting plasma lactate (mmol/l)*     
    Basal 0.6 ± 0.1 0.7 ± 0.3 0.8 ± 0.3 0.7 ± 0.2 
    Insulin-stimulated state 1.1 ± 0.2 1.2 ± 0.4 1.0 ± 0.4 1.1 ± 0.2 
Fasting plasma free fatty acids (μmol/l)     
    Basal 366 ± 76 461 ± 227 283 ± 128 258 ± 131 
    Insulin-stimulated state 10.8 ± 6.5 8.8 ± 4.2 11.5 ± 5.6 9.2 ± 4.5 
M value (mg · min−1 · kg body wt−1    
    Insulin-stimulated state 9.9 ± 2.0 11.3 ± 1.5 8.0 ± 2.2 8.4 ± 1.7 
M value (mg · min−1 · FFM−1    
    Insulin-stimulated state 13.9 ± 2.1 14.4 ± 1.7 11.1 ± 2.5 10.7 ± 2.0 
Glucose oxidation rate (mg · min−1 · FFM−1    
    Basal 1.8 ± 0.4 1.6 ± 0.5 2.5 ± 0.7 2.5 ± 0.9 
    Insulin-stimulated state 4.7 ± 0.7 4.5 ± 0.6 4.5 ± 0.7 4.3 ± 0.7 
Fat oxidation rate (mg · min−1 · FFM−1    
    Basal 0.9 ± 0.2 1.0 ± 0.3 0.6 ± 0.3 0.6 ± 0.4 
    Insulin-stimulated state 0.01 ± 0.24 0.05 ± 0.28 -0.03 ± 0.28 0.05 ± 0.26 
Nonoxidative glucose metabolism (mg · min−1 · FFM−1    
    Insulin-stimulated state 9.2 ± 1.8 9.9 ± 1.7 6.6 ± 2.3 6.5 ± 2.0 
Respiration quotient 0.83 ± 0.02 0.82 ± 0.03 0.87 ± 0.04 0.86 ± 0.05 
    Basal     
    Insulin-stimulated state 0.96 ± 0.03 0.95 ± 0.03 0.96 ± 0.04 0.95 ± 0.03 
FPIR (pmol · l−1 · min−1)* 2,173 ± 1,704 1,866 ± 932 3,368 ± 4,047 3,023 ± 1,702 
AUC10min (pmol · l−1 · min−12,440 ± 1,734 2,132 ± 967 3,766 ± 4,134 3,355 ± 1,765 
PHI1* 18.0 ± 12.7 17.2 ± 7.2 27.6 ± 24.2 27.3 ± 13.5 
Before bed rest
After bed rest
FDR groupCON groupFDR groupCON group
n 13 20 13 20 
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)     
    Basal 4.8 ± 0.4 4.6 ± 0.4 4.8 ± 0.3 4.6 ± 0.4 
    Insulin-stimulated state 5.2 ± 0.4 5.2 ± 0.3 5.2 ± 0.3 5.1 ± 0.3 
Fasting plasma insulin (pmol/l)*     
    Basal 32 ± 10 28 ± 10 51 ± 22 37 ± 18 
    Insulin-stimulated state 777 ± 126 769 ± 176 833 ± 160 832 ± 160 
Fasting plasma C-peptide (pmol/l)     
    Basal 522 ± 117 376 ± 168 678 ± 201 472 ± 187§ 
    Insulin-stimulated state 495 ± 156 323 ± 182 641 ± 238 412 ± 212§ 
Fasting plasma glycerol (μmol/l)*     
    Basal 65 ± 17 89 ± 35 67 ± 18 65 ± 28 
    Insulin-stimulated state 26 ± 8 27 ± 16 28 ± 11 27 ± 10 
Fasting plasma lactate (mmol/l)*     
    Basal 0.6 ± 0.1 0.7 ± 0.3 0.8 ± 0.3 0.7 ± 0.2 
    Insulin-stimulated state 1.1 ± 0.2 1.2 ± 0.4 1.0 ± 0.4 1.1 ± 0.2 
Fasting plasma free fatty acids (μmol/l)     
    Basal 366 ± 76 461 ± 227 283 ± 128 258 ± 131 
    Insulin-stimulated state 10.8 ± 6.5 8.8 ± 4.2 11.5 ± 5.6 9.2 ± 4.5 
M value (mg · min−1 · kg body wt−1    
    Insulin-stimulated state 9.9 ± 2.0 11.3 ± 1.5 8.0 ± 2.2 8.4 ± 1.7 
M value (mg · min−1 · FFM−1    
    Insulin-stimulated state 13.9 ± 2.1 14.4 ± 1.7 11.1 ± 2.5 10.7 ± 2.0 
Glucose oxidation rate (mg · min−1 · FFM−1    
    Basal 1.8 ± 0.4 1.6 ± 0.5 2.5 ± 0.7 2.5 ± 0.9 
    Insulin-stimulated state 4.7 ± 0.7 4.5 ± 0.6 4.5 ± 0.7 4.3 ± 0.7 
Fat oxidation rate (mg · min−1 · FFM−1    
    Basal 0.9 ± 0.2 1.0 ± 0.3 0.6 ± 0.3 0.6 ± 0.4 
    Insulin-stimulated state 0.01 ± 0.24 0.05 ± 0.28 -0.03 ± 0.28 0.05 ± 0.26 
Nonoxidative glucose metabolism (mg · min−1 · FFM−1    
    Insulin-stimulated state 9.2 ± 1.8 9.9 ± 1.7 6.6 ± 2.3 6.5 ± 2.0 
Respiration quotient 0.83 ± 0.02 0.82 ± 0.03 0.87 ± 0.04 0.86 ± 0.05 
    Basal     
    Insulin-stimulated state 0.96 ± 0.03 0.95 ± 0.03 0.96 ± 0.04 0.95 ± 0.03 
FPIR (pmol · l−1 · min−1)* 2,173 ± 1,704 1,866 ± 932 3,368 ± 4,047 3,023 ± 1,702 
AUC10min (pmol · l−1 · min−12,440 ± 1,734 2,132 ± 967 3,766 ± 4,134 3,355 ± 1,765 
PHI1* 18.0 ± 12.7 17.2 ± 7.2 27.6 ± 24.2 27.3 ± 13.5 

Data are means ± SD. Respiration quotient = VCO2/Vo2; FPIR = incremental area; AUC10min = total area under the IVGTT curve in the first 10 min; PHI1 = AUCinsulin/AUCglucose.

*Log-transformed data.

†Significant difference before versus after bed rest; P < 0.05.

‡Significant difference between FDR and CON groups before bed rest, P < 0.05.

§Significant difference between FDR and CON groups after bed rest, P < 0.05.

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