Skip to Main Content
TABLE 1

Characteristics of included studies investigating the association between maternal age and type 1 diabetes, ordered by publication date

First author, year* (reference)DesignCountryType 1 diabetic subjects
Control subjects
Available confounders
Ascertainment method (year case subjects diagnosed)Age at dx (years)nResp rate (%)Source (matching criteria)nResp rate (%)BOBWGAMDCSBF# (months)
Dahlquist, 1992 (9) C-C Sweden Swedish childhood diabetes register (78–88) 0–14 2,757 98 Medical birth registry (birth year, unit) 8,271 100       
Bock, 1994 (10) C-C Denmark Hosp. admission from National Patient Registry (78–89) <16 837 98 Birth registry (age, sex) 837 NA       
Patterson, 1994 (11) C-C Scotland Hosp. admission/childhood diabetes register (76–88) 0–14 271 100 Maternal discharge records (age, sex, area) 1,340 100 ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓(any) 
Wadsworth, 1997 (25) C-C U.K. British Paediatric Association Surveillance Unit (92) 0–5 213 89 Health Authority Immunization Register 318 70 ✓ ✓  ✓  ✓(4) 
Gimeno, 1997 (26) C-C Brazil Diabetes association/ Hospital admission (95) 0–19 344 91 Unclear (neighborhood, sex, age) 333 100 ✓ ✓  ✓  ✓(3) 
McKinney, 1999 (28) C-C England Yorkshire Childhood Diabetes Register (93–94) 0–15 220 94 General practitioner's records (age, sex) 423 82 ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓(any) 
Rami, 1999 (29) C-C Austria Vienna type 1 diabetes register (89–94) 0–14 103 86 Schools (age, sex) 373 80 ✓ ✓ ✓ § ✓ ✓(any) 
Bache, 1999 (19)** C-C Denmark Hospital admission (78–95) 0–14 857 100 Medical birth registry (month, sex, district) 1,404 100   ✓    
Dahlquist, 1999 (14) C-C Bulgaria W. Bulgaria type 1 diabetes register (91–94) 0–14 125 73 Schools and policlinics (age) 440 79 ✓ ✓ ✓ § ✓ ✓(any) 
 C-C Latvia Latvian type 1 diabetes register (89–94) 0–14 140 99 Population register (age) 301 79 ✓ ✓ ✓ § ✓ ✓(any) 
 C-C Lithuania Lithuanian type 1 diabetes register (89–94) 0–14 117 94 Policlinics (age) 266 73 ✓ ✓ ✓ § ✓ ✓(any) 
 C-C Luxembourg Luxembourg type 1 diabetes register (89–95) 0–14 59 100 Preschools and schools (age) 172 95 ✓ ✓ ✓ § ✓ ✓(any) 
 C-C Romania Bucharest type 1 diabetes register (89–94) 0–14 81 74 Preschools and schools (age) 277 81 ✓ ✓ ✓ § ✓ ✓(any) 
Stene, 2001 (13) Cohort Norway Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry (89–98) 0–14 1,810 100 Norwegian medical birth registry 1,382,602 NA ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓  
Visalli, 2003 (30) C-C Italy Lazio type 1 diabetes register (89–95) 0–14 139 100 Schools (age) 703 91  ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓(3) 
Stene, 2004 (31) C-C Norway Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry (98–00) 0–14 346 73 Norwegian population registry 1,626 56 ✓ ✓ ✓ § ✓ ✓(3) 
Sadauskaite-Kuehne, 2004 (15) C-C Sweden SE Sweden type 1 diabetes register (95–00) 0–15 442 100 Population register 1,084 73 ✓ ✓ ✓ §  ✓(3) 
C-C Lithuania Lithuanian type 1 diabetes register (96–00) 0–15 281 100 Outpatient clinic 807 95 ✓ ✓ ✓ §  ✓(3) 
Sumnik, 2004 (32) C-C Czech Republic Czech Republic type 1 diabetes registry (95–00) 0–15 640 79 National Birth registry (age) 32,000 100 ✓      
Marshall, 2004 (33) C-C England Morecambe Bay/E. Lancashire diabetes clinics (98) 0–15 196 83 Health Authorities (sex, birth date) 381 53 ✓ ✓ ✓ §  ✓(any) 
Cardwell, 2005 (34) Cohort N. Ireland N. Ireland type 1 diabetes register (71–01) 0–14 990 92 Northern Ireland Child Health register 439,647 NA ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓(any) 
Sipetić, 2005 (35) C-C Serbia Belgrade Hospital admission (94–97) 0–16 105 91 Hospital outpatients with skin disease (age, sex, area) 210 100 ✓ ✓ ✓ § ✓ ✓(4) 
Svensson, 2005 (36) C-C Denmark Danish register of childhood diabetes (96–99) 0–14 602 100 Danish population register (age, sex) 1,459 100 ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓(4) 
Bottini, 2005 (20)** C-C Sardinia Hospital diagnosis 189 Consecutive births in northern Sardinia 5,460       
Polańka, 2006 (37) C-C Poland Upper Silesia Diabetes Register (89–96) 0–14 394 87 Central Bureau for Statistics 994,460 100 ✓ ✓     
Wei, 2006 (38) C-C Taiwan School-based urine screening program & questionnaire (92–97) 0–18 260 87 Randomly selected negatives from screening program 533 88 ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓  ✓(3) 
Tenconi, 2007 (39) C-C Italy Pavia type 1 diabetes register (88–00) 0–19 99 85 Hospital (age, sex, week) 194 ✓      
Haynes, 2007 (40) Cohort Australia W. Australian Children's Diabetes Register (80–02) 0–14 926 99 W. Australia Midwives' Notification System ∼557,707 NA ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓   
Ievins, 2007 (41) Cohort England Hosp. admission [ICD diabetes code] (63–99) 0–14 410 — Oxfordshire/W. Berkshire maternity records 266,665 NA ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓(any) 
Borras Perez, 2007 (42) C-C Spain Catalonia type 1 diabetes register (97–08) 0–14 626 72 Catalonia Public Health Birth Register 3,320 98  ✓ ✓   ✓(any) 
Rosenbauer, 2008 (12) C-C Germany Nationwide hosp. based surveillance (92–95) 0–4 747 71 Local registration offices (age, sex, area) 1,820 43 ✓ ✓  §  ✓(4) 
Waldhoer, 2008 (43) Cohort Austria Austrian diabetes register (89–05) 0–5 444 85 Birth certificate registry 1,435,385 NA ✓ ✓ ✓    
First author, year* (reference)DesignCountryType 1 diabetic subjects
Control subjects
Available confounders
Ascertainment method (year case subjects diagnosed)Age at dx (years)nResp rate (%)Source (matching criteria)nResp rate (%)BOBWGAMDCSBF# (months)
Dahlquist, 1992 (9) C-C Sweden Swedish childhood diabetes register (78–88) 0–14 2,757 98 Medical birth registry (birth year, unit) 8,271 100       
Bock, 1994 (10) C-C Denmark Hosp. admission from National Patient Registry (78–89) <16 837 98 Birth registry (age, sex) 837 NA       
Patterson, 1994 (11) C-C Scotland Hosp. admission/childhood diabetes register (76–88) 0–14 271 100 Maternal discharge records (age, sex, area) 1,340 100 ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓(any) 
Wadsworth, 1997 (25) C-C U.K. British Paediatric Association Surveillance Unit (92) 0–5 213 89 Health Authority Immunization Register 318 70 ✓ ✓  ✓  ✓(4) 
Gimeno, 1997 (26) C-C Brazil Diabetes association/ Hospital admission (95) 0–19 344 91 Unclear (neighborhood, sex, age) 333 100 ✓ ✓  ✓  ✓(3) 
McKinney, 1999 (28) C-C England Yorkshire Childhood Diabetes Register (93–94) 0–15 220 94 General practitioner's records (age, sex) 423 82 ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓(any) 
Rami, 1999 (29) C-C Austria Vienna type 1 diabetes register (89–94) 0–14 103 86 Schools (age, sex) 373 80 ✓ ✓ ✓ § ✓ ✓(any) 
Bache, 1999 (19)** C-C Denmark Hospital admission (78–95) 0–14 857 100 Medical birth registry (month, sex, district) 1,404 100   ✓    
Dahlquist, 1999 (14) C-C Bulgaria W. Bulgaria type 1 diabetes register (91–94) 0–14 125 73 Schools and policlinics (age) 440 79 ✓ ✓ ✓ § ✓ ✓(any) 
 C-C Latvia Latvian type 1 diabetes register (89–94) 0–14 140 99 Population register (age) 301 79 ✓ ✓ ✓ § ✓ ✓(any) 
 C-C Lithuania Lithuanian type 1 diabetes register (89–94) 0–14 117 94 Policlinics (age) 266 73 ✓ ✓ ✓ § ✓ ✓(any) 
 C-C Luxembourg Luxembourg type 1 diabetes register (89–95) 0–14 59 100 Preschools and schools (age) 172 95 ✓ ✓ ✓ § ✓ ✓(any) 
 C-C Romania Bucharest type 1 diabetes register (89–94) 0–14 81 74 Preschools and schools (age) 277 81 ✓ ✓ ✓ § ✓ ✓(any) 
Stene, 2001 (13) Cohort Norway Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry (89–98) 0–14 1,810 100 Norwegian medical birth registry 1,382,602 NA ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓  
Visalli, 2003 (30) C-C Italy Lazio type 1 diabetes register (89–95) 0–14 139 100 Schools (age) 703 91  ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓(3) 
Stene, 2004 (31) C-C Norway Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry (98–00) 0–14 346 73 Norwegian population registry 1,626 56 ✓ ✓ ✓ § ✓ ✓(3) 
Sadauskaite-Kuehne, 2004 (15) C-C Sweden SE Sweden type 1 diabetes register (95–00) 0–15 442 100 Population register 1,084 73 ✓ ✓ ✓ §  ✓(3) 
C-C Lithuania Lithuanian type 1 diabetes register (96–00) 0–15 281 100 Outpatient clinic 807 95 ✓ ✓ ✓ §  ✓(3) 
Sumnik, 2004 (32) C-C Czech Republic Czech Republic type 1 diabetes registry (95–00) 0–15 640 79 National Birth registry (age) 32,000 100 ✓      
Marshall, 2004 (33) C-C England Morecambe Bay/E. Lancashire diabetes clinics (98) 0–15 196 83 Health Authorities (sex, birth date) 381 53 ✓ ✓ ✓ §  ✓(any) 
Cardwell, 2005 (34) Cohort N. Ireland N. Ireland type 1 diabetes register (71–01) 0–14 990 92 Northern Ireland Child Health register 439,647 NA ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓(any) 
Sipetić, 2005 (35) C-C Serbia Belgrade Hospital admission (94–97) 0–16 105 91 Hospital outpatients with skin disease (age, sex, area) 210 100 ✓ ✓ ✓ § ✓ ✓(4) 
Svensson, 2005 (36) C-C Denmark Danish register of childhood diabetes (96–99) 0–14 602 100 Danish population register (age, sex) 1,459 100 ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓(4) 
Bottini, 2005 (20)** C-C Sardinia Hospital diagnosis 189 Consecutive births in northern Sardinia 5,460       
Polańka, 2006 (37) C-C Poland Upper Silesia Diabetes Register (89–96) 0–14 394 87 Central Bureau for Statistics 994,460 100 ✓ ✓     
Wei, 2006 (38) C-C Taiwan School-based urine screening program & questionnaire (92–97) 0–18 260 87 Randomly selected negatives from screening program 533 88 ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓  ✓(3) 
Tenconi, 2007 (39) C-C Italy Pavia type 1 diabetes register (88–00) 0–19 99 85 Hospital (age, sex, week) 194 ✓      
Haynes, 2007 (40) Cohort Australia W. Australian Children's Diabetes Register (80–02) 0–14 926 99 W. Australia Midwives' Notification System ∼557,707 NA ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓   
Ievins, 2007 (41) Cohort England Hosp. admission [ICD diabetes code] (63–99) 0–14 410 — Oxfordshire/W. Berkshire maternity records 266,665 NA ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓(any) 
Borras Perez, 2007 (42) C-C Spain Catalonia type 1 diabetes register (97–08) 0–14 626 72 Catalonia Public Health Birth Register 3,320 98  ✓ ✓   ✓(any) 
Rosenbauer, 2008 (12) C-C Germany Nationwide hosp. based surveillance (92–95) 0–4 747 71 Local registration offices (age, sex, area) 1,820 43 ✓ ✓  §  ✓(4) 
Waldhoer, 2008 (43) Cohort Austria Austrian diabetes register (89–05) 0–5 444 85 Birth certificate registry 1,435,385 NA ✓ ✓ ✓    

*Year of publication.

†Number included in analysis of maternal age.

‡Tick denotes data recorded in study and available for analysis.

§Maternal type 1 diabetes used in analyses.

‖Not randomly selected and population based.

¶Percentage of case subjects identified in cohort.

#Duration of breast-feeding used in adjusted analysis shown in brackets.

**Only included in sensitivity analyses. dx, diagnosis; Resp, response; BF, breast-feeding (in months); BO, birth order; BW, birth weight; C-C, case-control; CS, cesarean section; GA, gestational age; Hosp., hospital; MD, maternal diabetes; NA, not applicable.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal