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TABLE 1

Characteristics of participants according to categories of A1C

Categories of A1C (%)
3.5–4.95.0–5.45.5–5.96.0–6.4
n 1,012 5,263 3,883 899 
Age (years) 55.4 ± 5.5 56.3 ± 5.6 57.4 ± 5.7 58.0 ± 5.6 
Male sex (%) 46.8 42.6 44.9 46.1 
African American race (%) 15.9 11.8 26.7 50.7 
Educational level (%)*     
    <12 years completed 13.4 14.5 23.4 31.9 
    12–16 years completed 40.4 44.5 40.8 36.6 
    >16 years completed 46.2 41.0 35.8 31.5 
Current smokers (%)* 13.0 18.4 29.1 31.3 
Current alcohol drinkers (%) 64.3 64.5 56.0 46.1 
BMI (kg/m2)* 26.4 ± 4.7 26.6 ± 4.5 27.8 ± 5.2 29.7 ± 5.9 
Fasting glucose (mg/dl)* 97.9 ± 8.4 99.4 ± 8.6 103.4 ± 9.1 108.1 ± 9.7 
Antihypertensive medication (%) 23.7 23.5 29.2 42.2 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)* 118.6 ± 17.4 118.4 ± 18.0 121.6 ± 18.0 125.4 ± 19.5 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)* 72.1 ± 10.0 71.5 ± 10.1 72.4 ± 10.3 73.9 ± 10.3 
LDL-C (mmol/l)* 3.18 ± 0.91 3.37 ± 0.91 3.54 ± 0.95 3.62 ± 0.96 
HDL-C (mmol/l)* 1.37 ± 0.48 1.35 ± 0.45 1.29 ± 0.42 1.22 ± 0.38 
Triglycerides (mmol/l)* 1.33 ± 0.77 1.42 ± 0.87 1.46 ± 0.85 1.53 ± 0.87 
History of CHD (%) 2.5 3.7 5.0 5.0 
Carotid atherosclerosis (%)* 4.4 4.7 6.9 10.1 
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m286.5 ± 17.6 84.9 ± 16.6 85.7 ± 18.3 87.9 ± 19.6 
Categories of A1C (%)
3.5–4.95.0–5.45.5–5.96.0–6.4
n 1,012 5,263 3,883 899 
Age (years) 55.4 ± 5.5 56.3 ± 5.6 57.4 ± 5.7 58.0 ± 5.6 
Male sex (%) 46.8 42.6 44.9 46.1 
African American race (%) 15.9 11.8 26.7 50.7 
Educational level (%)*     
    <12 years completed 13.4 14.5 23.4 31.9 
    12–16 years completed 40.4 44.5 40.8 36.6 
    >16 years completed 46.2 41.0 35.8 31.5 
Current smokers (%)* 13.0 18.4 29.1 31.3 
Current alcohol drinkers (%) 64.3 64.5 56.0 46.1 
BMI (kg/m2)* 26.4 ± 4.7 26.6 ± 4.5 27.8 ± 5.2 29.7 ± 5.9 
Fasting glucose (mg/dl)* 97.9 ± 8.4 99.4 ± 8.6 103.4 ± 9.1 108.1 ± 9.7 
Antihypertensive medication (%) 23.7 23.5 29.2 42.2 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)* 118.6 ± 17.4 118.4 ± 18.0 121.6 ± 18.0 125.4 ± 19.5 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)* 72.1 ± 10.0 71.5 ± 10.1 72.4 ± 10.3 73.9 ± 10.3 
LDL-C (mmol/l)* 3.18 ± 0.91 3.37 ± 0.91 3.54 ± 0.95 3.62 ± 0.96 
HDL-C (mmol/l)* 1.37 ± 0.48 1.35 ± 0.45 1.29 ± 0.42 1.22 ± 0.38 
Triglycerides (mmol/l)* 1.33 ± 0.77 1.42 ± 0.87 1.46 ± 0.85 1.53 ± 0.87 
History of CHD (%) 2.5 3.7 5.0 5.0 
Carotid atherosclerosis (%)* 4.4 4.7 6.9 10.1 
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m286.5 ± 17.6 84.9 ± 16.6 85.7 ± 18.3 87.9 ± 19.6 

Data are mean ± SD or percentage. All comparisons were significant at P < 0.001, except for sex (P = 0.017). eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate.

*Missing values (number missing): educational level, 13; current smokers, 1; BMI 9, fasting glucose 191; blood pressure, 1; LDL-C, 136: HDL-C, 37; triglycerides, 7; history of CHD, 98; carotid atherosclerosis, 211.

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