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TABLE 1

Studies relating weight gain to insulin sensitivity/secretion

ReferenceNMen/WomenAge (years)BMI (kg/m2)Follow-up (years)MethodResult
Swinburn et al. (1991) (1) 192 104/88 18–41 33–35 3.5 Clamp Insulin resistance is associated with a reduced risk of weight gain. 
Valdez et al. (1994) (2) 1,493 634/859 25–64 24–28 OGTT Insulin resistance attenuates further weight gain among the obese. 
Schwartz et al. (1995) (3) 97 64/33 25 34–35 MTT, OGTT, IVGTT Relatively reduced insulin release predicts weight gain. 
Hoag et al. (1995) (4) 789 382/407 20–74 21–30 4.3 Fasting insulin Higher initial fasting insulin decreases the risk of subsequent weight gain. 
Yost et al. (1995) (5) 10 0/10 36 ± 2 34–36 1.5 Clamp Change in insulin sensitivity predicts weight regain after an initial weight loss. 
Hodge et al. (1996) (6) 3,156 1,486/1,670 25–74 22–26 HOMA-IR In Chinese men, insulin resistance predicts weight gain; in Asian, Indian, and Creole subjects, insulin sensitivity predicts weight gain. 
Sigal et al. (1997) (7) 107 48/59 33 ± 10 — 16 ± 4 IVGTT High AIR predicts weight gain in offspring of two diabetic parents. 
Odeleye et al. (1997) (8) 328 147/181 5–9 — 9 ± 2 Fasting insulin In Pima Indian children, fasting hyperinsulinemia is associated with weight gain. 
Folsom et al. (1998) (9) 11,198 4,975/6,223 45–64 21–33 Fasting insulin Hyperinsulinemia predicts weight loss in ARIC but not in CARDIA. 
Gould et al. (1999) (10) 767 325/442 40–65 21–30 4.4 OGTT In middle-aged women, reduced first-phase insulin release predicts weight gain; fasting hyperinsulinemia predicts a higher waist-to-hip ratio. 
Wedick et al. (2001) (11) 725 308/417 50–89 21–31 HOMA-IR Insulin resistance is associated with weight loss in the elderly. 
Travers et al. (2002) (12) 95 47/48 10–15 — FSIVGTT Insulin resistance during puberty predicts less subcutaneous fat accumulation. 
Mayer-Davis et al. (2003) (13) 1,194 534/660 55 23–37 IVGTT Measures of insulin metabolism appear to have little effect on weight change. 
Mosca et al. (2004) (14) 782 349/433 20–74 20–30 14 QUICKI Insulin resistant individuals are susceptible to weight gain. 
Howard et al. (2004) (15) 3,389 0/3,389 62 27 HOMA-IR In postmenopausal women, insulin resistance predicts weight gain. 
Silver et al. (2006) (16) 105 64/41 28 ± 9 21–31 26 ± 4 IVGTT Neither AIR nor insulin sensitivity predicts weight gain. 
Pannacciulli et al. (2007) (17) 253 166/87 18–44 — 7 ± 4 Clamp In Pima Indians, insulin sensitivity does not predict weight changes in multivariate analysis. 
Morrison et al. (2008) (18) 639 0/639 18–19 14–35 10 HOMA-IR Girls in the top tertiles of HOMA-IR and dietary fat had a greater 10-year increase in BMI. 
Adam et al. (2009) (19) 96 67/29 Children 22–32 FSIVGTT In children, a decrease in insulin sensitivity is associated with a higher fat mass gain. 
ReferenceNMen/WomenAge (years)BMI (kg/m2)Follow-up (years)MethodResult
Swinburn et al. (1991) (1) 192 104/88 18–41 33–35 3.5 Clamp Insulin resistance is associated with a reduced risk of weight gain. 
Valdez et al. (1994) (2) 1,493 634/859 25–64 24–28 OGTT Insulin resistance attenuates further weight gain among the obese. 
Schwartz et al. (1995) (3) 97 64/33 25 34–35 MTT, OGTT, IVGTT Relatively reduced insulin release predicts weight gain. 
Hoag et al. (1995) (4) 789 382/407 20–74 21–30 4.3 Fasting insulin Higher initial fasting insulin decreases the risk of subsequent weight gain. 
Yost et al. (1995) (5) 10 0/10 36 ± 2 34–36 1.5 Clamp Change in insulin sensitivity predicts weight regain after an initial weight loss. 
Hodge et al. (1996) (6) 3,156 1,486/1,670 25–74 22–26 HOMA-IR In Chinese men, insulin resistance predicts weight gain; in Asian, Indian, and Creole subjects, insulin sensitivity predicts weight gain. 
Sigal et al. (1997) (7) 107 48/59 33 ± 10 — 16 ± 4 IVGTT High AIR predicts weight gain in offspring of two diabetic parents. 
Odeleye et al. (1997) (8) 328 147/181 5–9 — 9 ± 2 Fasting insulin In Pima Indian children, fasting hyperinsulinemia is associated with weight gain. 
Folsom et al. (1998) (9) 11,198 4,975/6,223 45–64 21–33 Fasting insulin Hyperinsulinemia predicts weight loss in ARIC but not in CARDIA. 
Gould et al. (1999) (10) 767 325/442 40–65 21–30 4.4 OGTT In middle-aged women, reduced first-phase insulin release predicts weight gain; fasting hyperinsulinemia predicts a higher waist-to-hip ratio. 
Wedick et al. (2001) (11) 725 308/417 50–89 21–31 HOMA-IR Insulin resistance is associated with weight loss in the elderly. 
Travers et al. (2002) (12) 95 47/48 10–15 — FSIVGTT Insulin resistance during puberty predicts less subcutaneous fat accumulation. 
Mayer-Davis et al. (2003) (13) 1,194 534/660 55 23–37 IVGTT Measures of insulin metabolism appear to have little effect on weight change. 
Mosca et al. (2004) (14) 782 349/433 20–74 20–30 14 QUICKI Insulin resistant individuals are susceptible to weight gain. 
Howard et al. (2004) (15) 3,389 0/3,389 62 27 HOMA-IR In postmenopausal women, insulin resistance predicts weight gain. 
Silver et al. (2006) (16) 105 64/41 28 ± 9 21–31 26 ± 4 IVGTT Neither AIR nor insulin sensitivity predicts weight gain. 
Pannacciulli et al. (2007) (17) 253 166/87 18–44 — 7 ± 4 Clamp In Pima Indians, insulin sensitivity does not predict weight changes in multivariate analysis. 
Morrison et al. (2008) (18) 639 0/639 18–19 14–35 10 HOMA-IR Girls in the top tertiles of HOMA-IR and dietary fat had a greater 10-year increase in BMI. 
Adam et al. (2009) (19) 96 67/29 Children 22–32 FSIVGTT In children, a decrease in insulin sensitivity is associated with a higher fat mass gain. 

MTT, meal tolerance test; FSIVGTT, frequently sampled IVGTT; QUICKI, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index.

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