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Table 1—

Studies reporting GDM in relation to a woman's own birth weight

AuthorPopulation/locationSample sizePresentationFindings
Pettitt and Knowler (14) Pima Indians  Prevalence by birth weight U-shaped association of diabetes prevalence 
 Age 15–24 years 573  15- to 24-year-old group, highest rate in birth weight ≥4.5 kg 
 Age 25–34 years 258  25- to 34-year-old group, highest rate in birth weight <2.5 kg 
Williams et al. (15) Washington State 41,839 Prevalence by birth weight  
 Non-Hispanic white 21,528  Linear inverse relationship 
 African-American 6,359  U-shaped—significantly higher at <2,000 and ≥4,000 g 
 Native American 7,456  Linear inverse 
 Hispanic 6,496  Linear from <2,000–3,000 g, flat above 3,000 g 
Egeland et al. (16) Norway: birth registry 138,714 Prevalence by birth weight U-shaped—significantly higher at <2,500 g 
Innes et al. (17) New York State Birth Registry 1994–1998 23,314 Prevalence by birth weight U-shaped—significant linear inverse trend from <2,000–4,000 g; ≥4,000 g significantly higher 
Seghieri et al. (18) Pistoia, Italy: women with positive 50-g screen 604 Prevalence by birth weight Significantly higher at birth weight <2,600 g; unrelated at higher birth weights 
Savona-Ventura and Chircop (19) Malta 324 with GDM Frequency distribution of birth weight Birth weight distribution significantly different from that of the general population; higher at 1,000–2,000 g (risk ratio = 2.8) and at ≥4,500 g (risk ratio = 2.7) 
Bo et al. (20) Torino, Italy 50 with IGT; 50 with GDM; 200 normal Frequency distribution of birth weight Birth weight distribution among IGT/GDM significantly different from normal; linear inverse among IGT/GDM, flat across quartiles among women with normal OGTT 
Moses et al. (21) Australia 138 with GDM 2-h glucose by birth size SGA women with GDM had higher 2-h glucose 
AuthorPopulation/locationSample sizePresentationFindings
Pettitt and Knowler (14) Pima Indians  Prevalence by birth weight U-shaped association of diabetes prevalence 
 Age 15–24 years 573  15- to 24-year-old group, highest rate in birth weight ≥4.5 kg 
 Age 25–34 years 258  25- to 34-year-old group, highest rate in birth weight <2.5 kg 
Williams et al. (15) Washington State 41,839 Prevalence by birth weight  
 Non-Hispanic white 21,528  Linear inverse relationship 
 African-American 6,359  U-shaped—significantly higher at <2,000 and ≥4,000 g 
 Native American 7,456  Linear inverse 
 Hispanic 6,496  Linear from <2,000–3,000 g, flat above 3,000 g 
Egeland et al. (16) Norway: birth registry 138,714 Prevalence by birth weight U-shaped—significantly higher at <2,500 g 
Innes et al. (17) New York State Birth Registry 1994–1998 23,314 Prevalence by birth weight U-shaped—significant linear inverse trend from <2,000–4,000 g; ≥4,000 g significantly higher 
Seghieri et al. (18) Pistoia, Italy: women with positive 50-g screen 604 Prevalence by birth weight Significantly higher at birth weight <2,600 g; unrelated at higher birth weights 
Savona-Ventura and Chircop (19) Malta 324 with GDM Frequency distribution of birth weight Birth weight distribution significantly different from that of the general population; higher at 1,000–2,000 g (risk ratio = 2.8) and at ≥4,500 g (risk ratio = 2.7) 
Bo et al. (20) Torino, Italy 50 with IGT; 50 with GDM; 200 normal Frequency distribution of birth weight Birth weight distribution among IGT/GDM significantly different from normal; linear inverse among IGT/GDM, flat across quartiles among women with normal OGTT 
Moses et al. (21) Australia 138 with GDM 2-h glucose by birth size SGA women with GDM had higher 2-h glucose 

IGT, impaired glucose tolerance; SGA, small for gestational age.

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