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Table 3—

Abnormal glucose tolerance at follow-up in women with GDM and DRAs

AuthorFollow-upICAsIAAsGADAsIA-2AsSeveral DRAs
Steel et al. (17) 1 year Predictive of type 1 diabetes     
Ginsberg-Fellner et al. (20) Years Predictive of type 1 diabetes     
Stowers et al. (19) Up to 22 years Not predictive of the final state of glucose tolerance     
Catalano et al. (21) Up to 4 years Predictive of IGT     
Stangerberg et al. (23) 2–4 months Not predictive of abnormal OGTT*     
Mauricio et al. (24) Months Predictive of diabetes     
Damm et al. (26) Up to 11 years Predictive of type 1 diabetes     
Beischer et al. (51) Years   GADAs at follow-up associated with type 1 and type 2 diabetes   
Petersen et al. (52) Up to 11 years Predictive of type 1 diabetes  Predictive of type 1 diabetes  DRA positivity predictive of type 1 diabetes 
Fuchtenbusch et al. (29) Up to 5 years Predictive of type 1 diabetes*  Predictive of type 1 diabetes* Not predictive of type 1 diabetes* Risk of type 1 diabetes increases with the number of DRAs* 
Panczel et al. (31) Up to 14 years Predictive of type 1 diabetes     
Kousta et al. (55) Up to 45 months   GADAs at follow-up not associated with different FBG or HOMA estimations of insulin secretion and sensitivity   
Weng et al. (56) 1 year   No association with diabetes/IGT   
Lapolla et al. (34) 5 years     DRA positivity, borderline association to type 1 diabetes 
Albareda et al. (35) Up to 11 years     DRA positivity not predictive of diabetes, type 1 diabetes, or type 2 diabetes* 
Järvelä et al. (37) Up to 7 years Predictive of type 1 diabetes*  Predictive of type 1 diabetes* Not predictive of type 1 diabetes* Number of DRAs predictive of type 1 diabetes* 
Löbnner et al. (83) Up to 11 years     GAD and/or IA-2 positivity predictive of diabetes* 
AuthorFollow-upICAsIAAsGADAsIA-2AsSeveral DRAs
Steel et al. (17) 1 year Predictive of type 1 diabetes     
Ginsberg-Fellner et al. (20) Years Predictive of type 1 diabetes     
Stowers et al. (19) Up to 22 years Not predictive of the final state of glucose tolerance     
Catalano et al. (21) Up to 4 years Predictive of IGT     
Stangerberg et al. (23) 2–4 months Not predictive of abnormal OGTT*     
Mauricio et al. (24) Months Predictive of diabetes     
Damm et al. (26) Up to 11 years Predictive of type 1 diabetes     
Beischer et al. (51) Years   GADAs at follow-up associated with type 1 and type 2 diabetes   
Petersen et al. (52) Up to 11 years Predictive of type 1 diabetes  Predictive of type 1 diabetes  DRA positivity predictive of type 1 diabetes 
Fuchtenbusch et al. (29) Up to 5 years Predictive of type 1 diabetes*  Predictive of type 1 diabetes* Not predictive of type 1 diabetes* Risk of type 1 diabetes increases with the number of DRAs* 
Panczel et al. (31) Up to 14 years Predictive of type 1 diabetes     
Kousta et al. (55) Up to 45 months   GADAs at follow-up not associated with different FBG or HOMA estimations of insulin secretion and sensitivity   
Weng et al. (56) 1 year   No association with diabetes/IGT   
Lapolla et al. (34) 5 years     DRA positivity, borderline association to type 1 diabetes 
Albareda et al. (35) Up to 11 years     DRA positivity not predictive of diabetes, type 1 diabetes, or type 2 diabetes* 
Järvelä et al. (37) Up to 7 years Predictive of type 1 diabetes*  Predictive of type 1 diabetes* Not predictive of type 1 diabetes* Number of DRAs predictive of type 1 diabetes* 
Löbnner et al. (83) Up to 11 years     GAD and/or IA-2 positivity predictive of diabetes* 

For groups with several articles on the subject, only articles providing new information on the predictive ability of DRAs are included.

*

Adjusted for other predictors. FBG, fasting blood glucose; HOMA, homeostasis model assessment; IGT, impaired glucose tolerance; OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test.

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