Skip to Main Content
Table 2—

Characteristics of diabetes type among Navajo youth with diabetes (2001 prevalent and 2002–2005 incident cases combined)

VariableType 1 diabetesType 2 diabetesP
n 17 66  
Current age (years) (means ± SD) 15.3 ± 4.5 18.0 ± 2.8 0.03 
Diabetes duration (years) (means ± SD) 6.0 ± 4.7 3.5 ± 2.2 0.047 
GAD antibody positive [n (%)] 7 (46.7) 12 (20.3) 0.05 
Fasting C-peptide (ng/ml)    
    Unadjusted (means ± SD) 0.7 ± 0.9 3.8 ± 2.3 <0.0001 
    Adjusted (means ± SE)* 1.3 ± 0.6 3.6 ± 0.3 0.002 
Stimulated C-peptide (area under the curve) (ng/ml)    
    Unadjusted (means ± SD) 2.0 ± 3.2 11.6 ± 7.0 <0.0001 
    Adjusted (means ± SE)* 4.4 ± 1.9 11.0 ± 0.8 0.003 
BMI (means ± SD) 23.5 ± 5.3 33.6 ± 9.1 <0.0001 
    BMI z score (means ± SD) 0.7 ± 0.9 1.8 ± 1.1 0.0004 
Weight [n (%)]    
    Underweight 1 (6.3) 1 (1.6)  
    Normal 9 (56.2) 9 (14.5) <0.0001 
    Overweight 85th to 95th percentile 4 (25.0) 10 (16.1)  
    Obese ≥95th percentile 2 (12.5) 42 (67.7)  
Acanthosis Nigricans [n (%)] 3 (17.7) 41 (64.1)  
Diabetes therapy (current) [n (%)]    
    Insulin 15 (88.2) 9 (17.0)  
    Metformin 0 (0.0) 31 (58.5) <0.0001 
    Both 1 (5.9) 5 (9.4)  
    None 1 (5.9) 8 (15.1)  
Diabetic ketoacidosis at onset [n (%)] 2 (40.0) 3 (14.3) 0.2 
Family history of diabetes [n (%)]    
    Yes 13 (76.5) 59 (92.2) 0.087 
    No 4 (23.5) 5 (7.8)  
VariableType 1 diabetesType 2 diabetesP
n 17 66  
Current age (years) (means ± SD) 15.3 ± 4.5 18.0 ± 2.8 0.03 
Diabetes duration (years) (means ± SD) 6.0 ± 4.7 3.5 ± 2.2 0.047 
GAD antibody positive [n (%)] 7 (46.7) 12 (20.3) 0.05 
Fasting C-peptide (ng/ml)    
    Unadjusted (means ± SD) 0.7 ± 0.9 3.8 ± 2.3 <0.0001 
    Adjusted (means ± SE)* 1.3 ± 0.6 3.6 ± 0.3 0.002 
Stimulated C-peptide (area under the curve) (ng/ml)    
    Unadjusted (means ± SD) 2.0 ± 3.2 11.6 ± 7.0 <0.0001 
    Adjusted (means ± SE)* 4.4 ± 1.9 11.0 ± 0.8 0.003 
BMI (means ± SD) 23.5 ± 5.3 33.6 ± 9.1 <0.0001 
    BMI z score (means ± SD) 0.7 ± 0.9 1.8 ± 1.1 0.0004 
Weight [n (%)]    
    Underweight 1 (6.3) 1 (1.6)  
    Normal 9 (56.2) 9 (14.5) <0.0001 
    Overweight 85th to 95th percentile 4 (25.0) 10 (16.1)  
    Obese ≥95th percentile 2 (12.5) 42 (67.7)  
Acanthosis Nigricans [n (%)] 3 (17.7) 41 (64.1)  
Diabetes therapy (current) [n (%)]    
    Insulin 15 (88.2) 9 (17.0)  
    Metformin 0 (0.0) 31 (58.5) <0.0001 
    Both 1 (5.9) 5 (9.4)  
    None 1 (5.9) 8 (15.1)  
Diabetic ketoacidosis at onset [n (%)] 2 (40.0) 3 (14.3) 0.2 
Family history of diabetes [n (%)]    
    Yes 13 (76.5) 59 (92.2) 0.087 
    No 4 (23.5) 5 (7.8)  

Family history of diabetes = mother, father, sibling, or grandparent with positive family history.

*

Adjusted for age and duration.

Medical record evidence of hyperglycemia and one or more of the following: 1) blood bicarbonate <15 mmol/l or pH <7.25 (venous) or <7.30 (arterial or capillary), 2) ICD-9 code 250.1 at discharge, and 3) a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis in the medical records.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal