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Table 3—

Clinical, metabolic, behavioral, and sociodemographic risk factors for chronic complications among Navajo youth with diabetes, by diabetes type (2001 prevalent and 2002–2005 incident cases combined)

VariableClinical type 1 diabetesClinical type 2 diabetesP
n 17 66  
A1C (%) (means ± SD) 9.8 ± 2.3 9.0 ± 2.8 0.3 
Glycemic control (A1C) [n (%)]    
    <8% 3 (20.0) 26 (43.3)  
    8–9.5% 4 (26.7) 8 (13.3) 0.197 
    ≥9.5% 8 (53.3) 26 (43.3)  
Waist circumference    
    Unadjusted (means ± SD) 88.4 ± 16.3 110.7 ± 24.2 0.0008 
    Adjusted (means ± SE)* 94.9 ± 6.6 109.0 ± 3.0 0.07 
High waist circumference [n (%)]    
    ≥90th percentile for age and sex 4 (25.0) 52 (82.5) <0.0001 
Systolic blood pressure (means ± SD) 114.5 ± 10.6 118.2 ± 12.5 0.3 
Diastolic blood pressure (means ± SD) 70.3 ± 10.4 73.3 ± 9.2 0.2 
Elevated blood pressure [n (%)] 2 (12.5) 9 (14.5) 0.8 
Taking antihypertensive medication [n (%)] 0 (0.0) 14 (26.4) 0.016 
Hypertension prevalence [n (%)]§ 2 (12.5) 22 (35.5) 0.1 
Triglycerides (mg/dl)    
    Unadjusted [median (interquartile range)] 109.5 (78.0) 147.0 (137.0) 0.03 
    Adjusted [median (interquartile range)]* 99.2 (25.9) 162.3 (24.3) 0.06 
High triglycerides (≥110 mg/dl) [n (%)]    
    Unadjusted 7 (50.0) 42 (73.7) 0.1 
    Adjusted* (48.7) (74.1) 0.1 
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)    
    Unadjusted (means ± SD) 55.9 ± 16.3 41.7 ± 10.4 0.005 
    Adjusted (means ± SE)* 53.2 ± 3.4 42.3 ± 1.5 0.008 
Low HDL cholesterol (≤40 mg/dl) [n (%)]    
    Unadjusted (means ± SD) 2 (13.3) 26 (44.1) 0.04 
    Adjusted* (15.4) (41.1) 0.1 
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)    
    Unadjusted (means ± SD) 109.9 ± 38.8 101.4 ± 35.1 0.4 
    Adjusted (means ± SE)* 110.6 ± 10.9 101.2 ± 4.8 0.5 
High LDL cholesterol (≥100 mg/dl) [n (%)]    
    Unadjusted 6 (42.9) 26 (45.6) 0.9 
    Adjusted* (46.6) (43.7) 0.9 
LDL cholesterol density (Rf)    
    Unadjusted (means ± SD) 0.27 ± 0.02 0.25 ± 0.03 0.02 
    Adjusted (means ± SE)* 0.27 ± 0.01 0.25 ± 0.005 0.07 
Apolipoprotein B (mg/dl)    
    Unadjusted [median (interquartile range)] 94.0 (39.0) 84.0 (57.0) 0.9 
    Adjusted [median (interquartile range)]* 87.6 (23.7) 87.9 (13.9) 0.7 
High albumin-to-creatinine ratio (≥30 μg/mg) [n (%)]    
    Unadjusted 2 (13.3) 17 (28.8) 0.3 
    Adjusted (means ± SE)* (5.6) (31.5) 0.05 
Smoking [n (%)]    
    Never 10 (66.7) 26 (39.4)  
    Former 2 (13.3) 23 (34.8) 0.15 
    Current 3 (20.0) 17 (25.8)  
Physical activity (means ± SD)    
    Average number of days per week 3.7 ± 2.5 3.0 ± 2.0 0.2 
Physically active [n (%)]    
    0–2 days/week 5 (33.3) 33 (50.0)  
    3–7 days/week 10 (66.7) 33 (50.0) 0.3 
Percent calories from fat (means ± SD)    
    Total fat 36.3 ± 7.7 36.4 ± 6.9 0.9 
    Saturated fat 12.5 ± 2.7 12.5 ± 2.9 0.9 
Fruits and vegetables (servings/day) (means ± SD) 2.8 ± 2.2 4.0 ± 2.5 0.1 
High CES-D score (≥24) [n (%)] 2 (14.3) 14 (21.9) 0.7 
Annual family income [n (%)]    
    <$25,000 6 (46.2) 33 (67.3)  
    $25,000 to $49,000 6 (46.2) 12 (24.5) 0.3 
    ≥$50,000 1 (7.7) 4 (8.2)  
Parental education [n (%)]    
    Less than high school 3 (18.8) 15 (23.8) 0.7 
    High school graduate or higher 13 (81.2) 48 (76.2)  
VariableClinical type 1 diabetesClinical type 2 diabetesP
n 17 66  
A1C (%) (means ± SD) 9.8 ± 2.3 9.0 ± 2.8 0.3 
Glycemic control (A1C) [n (%)]    
    <8% 3 (20.0) 26 (43.3)  
    8–9.5% 4 (26.7) 8 (13.3) 0.197 
    ≥9.5% 8 (53.3) 26 (43.3)  
Waist circumference    
    Unadjusted (means ± SD) 88.4 ± 16.3 110.7 ± 24.2 0.0008 
    Adjusted (means ± SE)* 94.9 ± 6.6 109.0 ± 3.0 0.07 
High waist circumference [n (%)]    
    ≥90th percentile for age and sex 4 (25.0) 52 (82.5) <0.0001 
Systolic blood pressure (means ± SD) 114.5 ± 10.6 118.2 ± 12.5 0.3 
Diastolic blood pressure (means ± SD) 70.3 ± 10.4 73.3 ± 9.2 0.2 
Elevated blood pressure [n (%)] 2 (12.5) 9 (14.5) 0.8 
Taking antihypertensive medication [n (%)] 0 (0.0) 14 (26.4) 0.016 
Hypertension prevalence [n (%)]§ 2 (12.5) 22 (35.5) 0.1 
Triglycerides (mg/dl)    
    Unadjusted [median (interquartile range)] 109.5 (78.0) 147.0 (137.0) 0.03 
    Adjusted [median (interquartile range)]* 99.2 (25.9) 162.3 (24.3) 0.06 
High triglycerides (≥110 mg/dl) [n (%)]    
    Unadjusted 7 (50.0) 42 (73.7) 0.1 
    Adjusted* (48.7) (74.1) 0.1 
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)    
    Unadjusted (means ± SD) 55.9 ± 16.3 41.7 ± 10.4 0.005 
    Adjusted (means ± SE)* 53.2 ± 3.4 42.3 ± 1.5 0.008 
Low HDL cholesterol (≤40 mg/dl) [n (%)]    
    Unadjusted (means ± SD) 2 (13.3) 26 (44.1) 0.04 
    Adjusted* (15.4) (41.1) 0.1 
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)    
    Unadjusted (means ± SD) 109.9 ± 38.8 101.4 ± 35.1 0.4 
    Adjusted (means ± SE)* 110.6 ± 10.9 101.2 ± 4.8 0.5 
High LDL cholesterol (≥100 mg/dl) [n (%)]    
    Unadjusted 6 (42.9) 26 (45.6) 0.9 
    Adjusted* (46.6) (43.7) 0.9 
LDL cholesterol density (Rf)    
    Unadjusted (means ± SD) 0.27 ± 0.02 0.25 ± 0.03 0.02 
    Adjusted (means ± SE)* 0.27 ± 0.01 0.25 ± 0.005 0.07 
Apolipoprotein B (mg/dl)    
    Unadjusted [median (interquartile range)] 94.0 (39.0) 84.0 (57.0) 0.9 
    Adjusted [median (interquartile range)]* 87.6 (23.7) 87.9 (13.9) 0.7 
High albumin-to-creatinine ratio (≥30 μg/mg) [n (%)]    
    Unadjusted 2 (13.3) 17 (28.8) 0.3 
    Adjusted (means ± SE)* (5.6) (31.5) 0.05 
Smoking [n (%)]    
    Never 10 (66.7) 26 (39.4)  
    Former 2 (13.3) 23 (34.8) 0.15 
    Current 3 (20.0) 17 (25.8)  
Physical activity (means ± SD)    
    Average number of days per week 3.7 ± 2.5 3.0 ± 2.0 0.2 
Physically active [n (%)]    
    0–2 days/week 5 (33.3) 33 (50.0)  
    3–7 days/week 10 (66.7) 33 (50.0) 0.3 
Percent calories from fat (means ± SD)    
    Total fat 36.3 ± 7.7 36.4 ± 6.9 0.9 
    Saturated fat 12.5 ± 2.7 12.5 ± 2.9 0.9 
Fruits and vegetables (servings/day) (means ± SD) 2.8 ± 2.2 4.0 ± 2.5 0.1 
High CES-D score (≥24) [n (%)] 2 (14.3) 14 (21.9) 0.7 
Annual family income [n (%)]    
    <$25,000 6 (46.2) 33 (67.3)  
    $25,000 to $49,000 6 (46.2) 12 (24.5) 0.3 
    ≥$50,000 1 (7.7) 4 (8.2)  
Parental education [n (%)]    
    Less than high school 3 (18.8) 15 (23.8) 0.7 
    High school graduate or higher 13 (81.2) 48 (76.2)  
*

Adjusted for age and duration.

High blood pressure at study visit = systolic or diastolic blood pressure ≥95th percentile for age, sex, and height.

On antihypertensive medication: ACE inhibitors (n = 13), calcium channel blockers (n = 0), and diuretics (n = 0).

§

Hypertension = systolic or diastolic blood pressure ≥95th percentile for age, sex, and height or on antihypertensive medications.

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