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Table 1—

Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of youth with type 1 or type 2 diabetes: the SEARCH study prevalent 2001 and incident 2002–2005 cases

Type 1 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes
P
0–45–910–14≥15P*10–14≥15P
Sociodemographic characteristics          
    Income     0.0036   0.9565 <0.0001 
        <$25,000 27 (9.8) 80 (9.9) 116 (9.6) 73 (8.6)  11 (29.7) 20 (31.7)   
        $25,000–$49,000 78 (28.4) 183 (22.6) 223 (18.5) 168 (19.8)  9 (24.3) 17 (27)   
        $50,000–$74,000 71 (25.8) 169 (20.9) 287 (23.8) 190 (22.4)  10 (27) 14 (22.2)   
        ≥$75,000 99 (36) 376 (46.5) 580 (48.1) 417 (49.2)  7 (18.9) 12 (19)   
    Education     0.0190   0.7478 0.0003 
        Less than high school 1 (0.3) 12 (1.4) 31 (2.5) 11 (1.2)  3 (7.1) 4 (5.6)   
        High school graduate or higher 295 (99.7) 832 (98.6) 1231 (97.5) 940 (98.8)  39 (92.9) 67 (94.4)   
    Insurance§     <0.0001   0.0466 <0.0001 
        Private 220 (78.6) 637 (81.5) 981 (84.6) 744 (87)  30 (78.9) 33 (52.4)   
        Medicaid/Medicare 54 (19.3) 127 (16.2) 150 (12.9) 78 (9.1)  8 (21.1) 26 (41.3)   
        Other 3 (1.1) 13 (1.7) 13 (1.1) 15 (1.8)   2 (3.2)   
        None 3 (1.1) 5 (0.6) 15 (1.3) 18 (2.1)   2 (3.2)   
Clinical characteristics          
    Fasting C-peptide (adjusted means ± SE) 0.1 ± 0.04 0.3 ± 0.02 0.5 ± 0.02 0.6 ± 0.02 <0.0001 3.4 ± 0.4 3.7 ± 0.3 0.5892 <0.0001 
    GAD antibody positive 115 (55) 371 (51.5) 618 (54.4) 451 (51) 0.3690 6 (15) 15 (23.4) 0.2970 <0.0001 
        Duration adjusted (%) 46.4 46.3 52.9 59 <0.0001 14.8 23.6 0.2981 <0.0001 
    DKA at onset [n (% yes)] 73 (28.9) 94 (18.5) 143 (24) 37 (15.8) 0.0007 3 (8.8) 1 (2.6) 0.2411 0.0008 
    Family history of diabetes     <0.0001   0.9734 <0.0001 
        Yes 133 (44.8) 404 (47.9) 714 (56.8) 528 (55.1)  32 (78) 56 (77.8)   
        No 164 (55.2) 439 (52.1) 544 (43.2) 430 (44.9)  9 (22) 16 (22.2)   
    Diabetes therapy (current)     0.0020   0.7264 <0.0001 
        Insulin 297 (100) 835 (99.4) 1,245 (98.7) 927 (97.1)  10 (25) 13 (19.1)   
        Metformin   3 (0.2) 2 (0.2)  19 (47.5) 34 (50)   
        Both  5 (0.6) 12 (1) 23 (2.4)  8 (20) 18 (26.5)   
        None   1 (0.1) 3 (0.3)  3 (7.5) 3 (4.4)   
    A1C     <0.0001   0.3267 <0.0001 
        < 8% 108 (52.7) 433 (59.7) 622 (53.6) 399 (44.7)  29 (70.7) 52 (80)   
        8–9.5% 90 (43.9) 255 (35.2) 408 (35.2) 302 (33.8)  7 (17.1) 5 (7.7)   
        ≥9.5% 7 (3.4) 37 (5.1) 130 (11.2) 192 (21.5)  5 (12.2) 8 (12.3)   
    BMI z score 0.6 ± 1 0.6 ± 0.9 0.6 ± 0.9 0.6 ± 0.9 0.9554 1.9 ± 0.8 2.1 ± 0.6 0.1331 <0.0001 
    Weight     0.4615   0.0773 <0.0001 
        Underweight/normal 127 (70.2) 575 (69.8) 840 (68.2) 641 (69.1)  7 (17.1) 3 (4.7)   
        Overweight 85th–95th percentile 37 (20.4) 148 (18) 260 (21.1) 194 (20.9)  3 (7.3) 9 (14.1)   
        Obese ≥95th percentile 17 (9.4) 101 (12.3) 131 (10.6) 92 (9.9)  31 (75.6) 52 (81.3)   
    High waist circumference** 36 (20.8) 97 (11.9) 162 (13.4) 125 (14) 0.0214 33 (78.6) 55 (87.3) 0.2342 <0.0001 
    Acanthosis nigricans [n (% yes)] 3 (1.6) 9 (1.1) 26 (2.1) 18 (2) 0.3499 16 (43.2) 16 (25.8) 0.0727 <0.0001 
    High blood pressure†† 22 (13.1) 41 (5.1) 53 (4.4) 39 (4.2) <0.0001 13 (31.7) 4 (6.2) 0.0005 <0.0001 
        Duration adjusted (%) 12.9 4.4 4.3 0.0001 30.6 6.3 0.0033 <0.0001 
    Self-reported hypertension  6 (0.7) 16 (1.3) 62 (6.5) <0.0001 11 (26.8) 22 (31.4) 0.6089 <0.0001 
        Duration adjusted (%)  0.8 1.3 <0.0001 26.2 31.8 0.5463 <0.0001 
    High triglycerides (≥110 mg/dl) 3 (1.8) 26 (4) 115 (10.8) 204 (25) <0.0001 21 (56.8) 39 (60.9) 0.6802 <0.0001 
        Duration adjusted (%) 2.1 4.4 11 22.1 <0.0001 57.9 60.4 0.8147 <0.0001 
    Low HDL cholesterol (≤40 mg/dl) 27 (13.4) 45 (6.3) 123 (10.7) 163 (18.3) <0.0001 21 (52.5) 46 (69.7) 0.0751 <0.0001 
        Duration adjusted (%) 11.8 5.8 10.3 20.1 <0.0001 46.7 74.1 0.0113 <0.0001 
    High LDL cholesterol (≥100 mg/dl) 91 (53.8) 291 (45.3) 445 (41.9) 369 (45.2) 0.0275 16 (43.2) 36 (56.3) 0.2076 0.1654 
        Duration adjusted (%) 57.9 47.8 42.7 41.3 0.0006 44.5 55.5 0.3049 0.0631 
    ApoB [median (interquartile range)] 75 (17.5) 71 (22) 71 (23) 76 (26) <0.0001 83 (32) 90 (40) 0.1049 <0.0001 
        Duration adjusted [median (interquartile range)] 74.8 (0.7) 68.3 (2.0) 70.1 (3.2) 76.4 (5.3) <0.0001 79.6 (2.3) 89.7 (7.1) 0.2220 <0.0001 
    High ACR (≥30) 13 (6.9) 40 (5.4) 112 (10.1) 89 (10.8) 0.0006 5 (11.9) 9 (15.3) 0.6311 0.0872 
        Duration adjusted (%) 7.1 5.6 10.2 10.4 0.0036 13.3 12.7 0.9342 0.0498 
Type 1 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes
P
0–45–910–14≥15P*10–14≥15P
Sociodemographic characteristics          
    Income     0.0036   0.9565 <0.0001 
        <$25,000 27 (9.8) 80 (9.9) 116 (9.6) 73 (8.6)  11 (29.7) 20 (31.7)   
        $25,000–$49,000 78 (28.4) 183 (22.6) 223 (18.5) 168 (19.8)  9 (24.3) 17 (27)   
        $50,000–$74,000 71 (25.8) 169 (20.9) 287 (23.8) 190 (22.4)  10 (27) 14 (22.2)   
        ≥$75,000 99 (36) 376 (46.5) 580 (48.1) 417 (49.2)  7 (18.9) 12 (19)   
    Education     0.0190   0.7478 0.0003 
        Less than high school 1 (0.3) 12 (1.4) 31 (2.5) 11 (1.2)  3 (7.1) 4 (5.6)   
        High school graduate or higher 295 (99.7) 832 (98.6) 1231 (97.5) 940 (98.8)  39 (92.9) 67 (94.4)   
    Insurance§     <0.0001   0.0466 <0.0001 
        Private 220 (78.6) 637 (81.5) 981 (84.6) 744 (87)  30 (78.9) 33 (52.4)   
        Medicaid/Medicare 54 (19.3) 127 (16.2) 150 (12.9) 78 (9.1)  8 (21.1) 26 (41.3)   
        Other 3 (1.1) 13 (1.7) 13 (1.1) 15 (1.8)   2 (3.2)   
        None 3 (1.1) 5 (0.6) 15 (1.3) 18 (2.1)   2 (3.2)   
Clinical characteristics          
    Fasting C-peptide (adjusted means ± SE) 0.1 ± 0.04 0.3 ± 0.02 0.5 ± 0.02 0.6 ± 0.02 <0.0001 3.4 ± 0.4 3.7 ± 0.3 0.5892 <0.0001 
    GAD antibody positive 115 (55) 371 (51.5) 618 (54.4) 451 (51) 0.3690 6 (15) 15 (23.4) 0.2970 <0.0001 
        Duration adjusted (%) 46.4 46.3 52.9 59 <0.0001 14.8 23.6 0.2981 <0.0001 
    DKA at onset [n (% yes)] 73 (28.9) 94 (18.5) 143 (24) 37 (15.8) 0.0007 3 (8.8) 1 (2.6) 0.2411 0.0008 
    Family history of diabetes     <0.0001   0.9734 <0.0001 
        Yes 133 (44.8) 404 (47.9) 714 (56.8) 528 (55.1)  32 (78) 56 (77.8)   
        No 164 (55.2) 439 (52.1) 544 (43.2) 430 (44.9)  9 (22) 16 (22.2)   
    Diabetes therapy (current)     0.0020   0.7264 <0.0001 
        Insulin 297 (100) 835 (99.4) 1,245 (98.7) 927 (97.1)  10 (25) 13 (19.1)   
        Metformin   3 (0.2) 2 (0.2)  19 (47.5) 34 (50)   
        Both  5 (0.6) 12 (1) 23 (2.4)  8 (20) 18 (26.5)   
        None   1 (0.1) 3 (0.3)  3 (7.5) 3 (4.4)   
    A1C     <0.0001   0.3267 <0.0001 
        < 8% 108 (52.7) 433 (59.7) 622 (53.6) 399 (44.7)  29 (70.7) 52 (80)   
        8–9.5% 90 (43.9) 255 (35.2) 408 (35.2) 302 (33.8)  7 (17.1) 5 (7.7)   
        ≥9.5% 7 (3.4) 37 (5.1) 130 (11.2) 192 (21.5)  5 (12.2) 8 (12.3)   
    BMI z score 0.6 ± 1 0.6 ± 0.9 0.6 ± 0.9 0.6 ± 0.9 0.9554 1.9 ± 0.8 2.1 ± 0.6 0.1331 <0.0001 
    Weight     0.4615   0.0773 <0.0001 
        Underweight/normal 127 (70.2) 575 (69.8) 840 (68.2) 641 (69.1)  7 (17.1) 3 (4.7)   
        Overweight 85th–95th percentile 37 (20.4) 148 (18) 260 (21.1) 194 (20.9)  3 (7.3) 9 (14.1)   
        Obese ≥95th percentile 17 (9.4) 101 (12.3) 131 (10.6) 92 (9.9)  31 (75.6) 52 (81.3)   
    High waist circumference** 36 (20.8) 97 (11.9) 162 (13.4) 125 (14) 0.0214 33 (78.6) 55 (87.3) 0.2342 <0.0001 
    Acanthosis nigricans [n (% yes)] 3 (1.6) 9 (1.1) 26 (2.1) 18 (2) 0.3499 16 (43.2) 16 (25.8) 0.0727 <0.0001 
    High blood pressure†† 22 (13.1) 41 (5.1) 53 (4.4) 39 (4.2) <0.0001 13 (31.7) 4 (6.2) 0.0005 <0.0001 
        Duration adjusted (%) 12.9 4.4 4.3 0.0001 30.6 6.3 0.0033 <0.0001 
    Self-reported hypertension  6 (0.7) 16 (1.3) 62 (6.5) <0.0001 11 (26.8) 22 (31.4) 0.6089 <0.0001 
        Duration adjusted (%)  0.8 1.3 <0.0001 26.2 31.8 0.5463 <0.0001 
    High triglycerides (≥110 mg/dl) 3 (1.8) 26 (4) 115 (10.8) 204 (25) <0.0001 21 (56.8) 39 (60.9) 0.6802 <0.0001 
        Duration adjusted (%) 2.1 4.4 11 22.1 <0.0001 57.9 60.4 0.8147 <0.0001 
    Low HDL cholesterol (≤40 mg/dl) 27 (13.4) 45 (6.3) 123 (10.7) 163 (18.3) <0.0001 21 (52.5) 46 (69.7) 0.0751 <0.0001 
        Duration adjusted (%) 11.8 5.8 10.3 20.1 <0.0001 46.7 74.1 0.0113 <0.0001 
    High LDL cholesterol (≥100 mg/dl) 91 (53.8) 291 (45.3) 445 (41.9) 369 (45.2) 0.0275 16 (43.2) 36 (56.3) 0.2076 0.1654 
        Duration adjusted (%) 57.9 47.8 42.7 41.3 0.0006 44.5 55.5 0.3049 0.0631 
    ApoB [median (interquartile range)] 75 (17.5) 71 (22) 71 (23) 76 (26) <0.0001 83 (32) 90 (40) 0.1049 <0.0001 
        Duration adjusted [median (interquartile range)] 74.8 (0.7) 68.3 (2.0) 70.1 (3.2) 76.4 (5.3) <0.0001 79.6 (2.3) 89.7 (7.1) 0.2220 <0.0001 
    High ACR (≥30) 13 (6.9) 40 (5.4) 112 (10.1) 89 (10.8) 0.0006 5 (11.9) 9 (15.3) 0.6311 0.0872 
        Duration adjusted (%) 7.1 5.6 10.2 10.4 0.0036 13.3 12.7 0.9342 0.0498 

Data are n (%), unless otherwise indicated. Physical examination data not collected on youth aged <3 years.

*

For categorical variables using χ2 test for the association between variable levels and age-groups within type 1 diabetes; for continuous variables using ANOVA for the overall effect of age-group within type 1 diabetes; for adjusted variables using logistic regression (categorical variables) or linear regression (continuous variables) for the overall effect of age-group within type 1 diabetes.

For categorical variables using χ2 test for the association between variable levels and age-groups within type 2 diabetes; for continuous variables using ANOVA for the overall effect of age-group within type 2 diabetes; for adjusted variables using logistic regression (categorical variables) or linear regression (continuous variables) for the overall effect of age-group within type 2 diabetes.

For categorical variables using χ2 test for the association between variable levels and diabetes type (type 1 versus type 2); for continuous variables using ANOVA for the overall effect of diabetes type (type 1 versus type 2); for adjusted variables using logistic regression (categorical variables) or linear regression (continuous variables) for the overall effect of diabetes type (type 1 versus type 2).

§

Only nonmembership sites (South Carolina, Ohio, Washington, and Colorado).

Incident cases only.

Family history includes parents, grandparents, and biological siblings.

**

Waist circumference ≥90th percentile for age and sex.

††

Measured blood pressure (systolic or diastolic) ≥ age-, sex-, and height-specific 95th percentile.

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