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Table 2—

Clinical characteristics and laboratory results for 678 Hispanic youth with type 1 or type 2 diabetes: the SEARCH study, 2001 prevalent and 2002–2005 incident cohorts with a study visit

Type 1 diabetes (n = 551)
Type 2 diabetes (n = 127)
Aged 0–9 years*Aged 10–14 yearsAged ≥15 yearsPAged 10–14 yearsAged ≥15 yearsP
n 179 210 162  40 87  
Diagnosis        
    Age at diabetes diagnosis (years) (means ± SD) 4.5 ± 2.5 8.7 ± 3.2 11.2 ± 4.2 NA 11.6 ± 1.5 14.6 ± 2.1 NA 
    Duration of diabetes at visit (months) (means ± SD) 22.0 ± 22.9 41.4 ± 38.0 73.2 ± 50.8 <0.0001 13.8 ± 10.7 26.8 ± 24.0 0.001 
    Duration of diabetes at visit (months) [n (%)]    <0.0001   0.014 
        <6 37 (20.8) 21 (10.0) 7 (4.3)  8 (20.0) 9 (10.3)  
        6–12 47 (26.4) 35 (16.7) 13 (8.1)  12 (30.0) 19 (21.8)  
        >12 94 (52.8) 154 (73.3) 141 (97.6)  20 (50.0) 59 (67.8)  
    Learned they had diabetes through the following [n (%)]    NA   NA 
        Symptoms 159 (90.9) 189 (92.6) 141 (88.1)  20 (51.3) 39 (47.6)  
        Physical/check up 12 (7.4) 17 (9.2) 21 (14.1)  12 (31.6) 29 (35.4)  
        Screening 4 (2.5) 5 (2.7) 3 (2.0)  2 (5.3) 5 (6.3)  
    DKA at diagnosis, incident cases [n (% yes)] 30 (25.6) 22 (23.7) 8 (21.6) 0.87 3 (9.4) 3 (6.4) 0.62 
    Any family history of diabetes [n (% yes)]§ 92 (52.3) 129 (62.0) 113 (70.2) 0.003 35 (89.7) 71 (82.6) 0.30 
Clinical characteristics        
    BMI (means ± SD) 17.6 ± 2.7 21.7 ± 3.9 25.5 ± 5.1 <0.0001 32.0 ± 8.1 33.3 ± 7.4 0.42 
    BMI z score (means ± SD) 0.7 ± 1.0 0.8 ± 0.9 0.8 ± 1.1 0.29 2 ± 0.9 1.8 ± 0.8 0.28 
    Acanthosis nigricans [n (% present)] 1 (0.7) 20 (10.4) 16 (10.7) 0.0009 24 (66.7) 46 (56.1) 0.28 
    High blood pressure at visit [n (%)] 15 (10.8) 12 (6.2) 6 (4.0) 0.07 7 (18.9) 18 (21.7) 0.73 
    High blood pressure adjusted for duration (%) 11.6 6.3 3.6 0.07 20.4 20.6 0.98 
    Diabetes medications [n (%)]    <0.0001   0.038 
        Currently on insulin only 178 (100.0) 207 (99.0) 142 (88.8)  13 (37.1) 12 (16.0)  
        Currently on insulin and metformin 2 (1.0) 12 (7.5)  4 (11.4) 9 (12.0)  
        Currently on metformin only 6 (3.8)  17 (48.6) 42 (56.0)  
        No diabetes medication  1 (2.9) 12 (16.0)  
Laboratory measurements        
    (%) (means ± SD) 8.0 (1.2) 8.6 (1.9) 8.9 (2.0) 0.0002 7.1 (2.2) 8.5 (2.6) 0.009 
        Adjusted for duration (means ± SE) 8.2 (0.2) 8.6 (0.1) 8.7 (0.2) 0.042 7.3 (0.4) 8.4 (0.3) 0.043 
    Glycemic control [n (%)]    0.0002   0.023 
        Good (A1C < 8.0%) 64 (51.6) 75 (42.1) 48 (34.8)  26 (74.3) 37 (46.8)  
        Marginal (8.0 ≤ A1C < 9.5%) 45 (36.3) 48 (27.0) 40 (29.0)  4 (11.4) 15 (19.0)  
        Poor (A1C ≥ 9.5%) 15 (12.1) 55 (30.9) 50 (36.2)  5 (14.3) 27 (34.2)  
    GAD65 positive [n (% yes)] 68 (58.1) 102 (59.3) 80 (59.3) 0.98 5 (16.1) 14 (19.2) 0.71 
        Adjusted for duration (%) 52.7 58.1 66.3 0.15 18.2 17.5 0.93 
    Fasting C-peptide (means ± SD) 0.4 (0.3) 0.6 (0.7) 0.6 (0.9) 0.06 4.4 (2.4) 3.9 (2.6) 0.35 
    Mean fasting C-peptide adjusted for duration (means ± SE) 0.3 (0.1) 0.6 (0.1) 0.8 (0.1) <0.0001 4.2 (0.5) 4 (0.3) 0.69 
    LDL cholesterol (mg/dl) (means ± SD) 96.6 ± 22.5 96.2 ± 26.8 99.7 ± 26.1 0.51 104.4 ± 28.8 108.3 ± 3.5 0.59 
        Adjusted for duration (means ± SE) 98.9 ± 2.6 97.1 ± 2.0 96.9 ± 2.5 0.83 105.8 ± 6.0 107.7 ± 4.1 0.80 
    High LDL cholesterol (≥100 mg/dl) [n (% yes)] 42 (41.2) 58 (38.2) 58 (51.8) 0.078 18 (56.3) 38 (56.7) 0.97 
        Adjusted for duration (% yes) 43.5 39.0 48.8 0.33 57.4 56.2 0.91 
    Triglycerides (mg/dl) (geometric means ± SD) 50.1 ± 1.4 65.4 ± 1.6 91.4 ± 1.9 <0.0001 127.7 ± 1.7 159.9 ± 2.0 0.10 
        Adjusted for duration (geometric mean ± SE) 51.5 ± 1.1 66 ± 1.0 88.9 ± 1.1 <0.0001 128.1 ± 1.1 159.7 ± 1.1 0.13 
    High triglycerides (≥110 mg/dl) [n (% yes)] 3 (2.9) 21 (13.8) 38 (33.9) <0.0001 19 (59.4) 48 (71.6) 0.22 
        Adjusted for duration (% yes) 3.2 14.1 30.9 <0.0001 60.8 71.2 0.32 
    HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) (means ± SD) 55.3 ± 11.7 54 ± 11.7 50.1 ± 14.1 0.002 41.6 ± 8.6 40.5 ± 10.4 0.61 
        Adjusted for duration (means ± SE) 56.1 ± 1.2 54.2 ± 0.9 49.1 ± 1.1 0.0001 42.4 ± 1.7 40.2 ± 1.1 0.29 
    Low HDL cholesterol (≤40 mg/dl) [n (% yes)] 9 (7.4) 24 (13.5) 30 (21.7) 0.004 17 (50.0) 43 (55.1) 0.62 
        Adjusted for duration (% yes) 6.3 12.7 24.7 0.0006 47.5 56.2 0.41 
    Apolipoprotein B [median (interquartile range)] 70.0 (15.0) 70.0 (29.0) 80.0 (40.0) 0.008 84.0 (30) 97.5 (41.0) 0.45 
        Adjusted for duration [median (interquartile range)] 69.2 (4.4) 70.5 (5.3) 77.8 (7.3) 0.20 88.5 (1.6) 92.9 (4.7) 0.66 
    High apolipoprotein B (≥90 mg/dl) [n (%)] 11 (14.5) 27 (19.7) 44 (35.8) <0.0001 10 (47.6) 38 (61.3) 0.27 
        Adjusted for duration (% yes) 16.1 20.2 33.1 0.021 53.2 60.3 0.59 
Type 1 diabetes (n = 551)
Type 2 diabetes (n = 127)
Aged 0–9 years*Aged 10–14 yearsAged ≥15 yearsPAged 10–14 yearsAged ≥15 yearsP
n 179 210 162  40 87  
Diagnosis        
    Age at diabetes diagnosis (years) (means ± SD) 4.5 ± 2.5 8.7 ± 3.2 11.2 ± 4.2 NA 11.6 ± 1.5 14.6 ± 2.1 NA 
    Duration of diabetes at visit (months) (means ± SD) 22.0 ± 22.9 41.4 ± 38.0 73.2 ± 50.8 <0.0001 13.8 ± 10.7 26.8 ± 24.0 0.001 
    Duration of diabetes at visit (months) [n (%)]    <0.0001   0.014 
        <6 37 (20.8) 21 (10.0) 7 (4.3)  8 (20.0) 9 (10.3)  
        6–12 47 (26.4) 35 (16.7) 13 (8.1)  12 (30.0) 19 (21.8)  
        >12 94 (52.8) 154 (73.3) 141 (97.6)  20 (50.0) 59 (67.8)  
    Learned they had diabetes through the following [n (%)]    NA   NA 
        Symptoms 159 (90.9) 189 (92.6) 141 (88.1)  20 (51.3) 39 (47.6)  
        Physical/check up 12 (7.4) 17 (9.2) 21 (14.1)  12 (31.6) 29 (35.4)  
        Screening 4 (2.5) 5 (2.7) 3 (2.0)  2 (5.3) 5 (6.3)  
    DKA at diagnosis, incident cases [n (% yes)] 30 (25.6) 22 (23.7) 8 (21.6) 0.87 3 (9.4) 3 (6.4) 0.62 
    Any family history of diabetes [n (% yes)]§ 92 (52.3) 129 (62.0) 113 (70.2) 0.003 35 (89.7) 71 (82.6) 0.30 
Clinical characteristics        
    BMI (means ± SD) 17.6 ± 2.7 21.7 ± 3.9 25.5 ± 5.1 <0.0001 32.0 ± 8.1 33.3 ± 7.4 0.42 
    BMI z score (means ± SD) 0.7 ± 1.0 0.8 ± 0.9 0.8 ± 1.1 0.29 2 ± 0.9 1.8 ± 0.8 0.28 
    Acanthosis nigricans [n (% present)] 1 (0.7) 20 (10.4) 16 (10.7) 0.0009 24 (66.7) 46 (56.1) 0.28 
    High blood pressure at visit [n (%)] 15 (10.8) 12 (6.2) 6 (4.0) 0.07 7 (18.9) 18 (21.7) 0.73 
    High blood pressure adjusted for duration (%) 11.6 6.3 3.6 0.07 20.4 20.6 0.98 
    Diabetes medications [n (%)]    <0.0001   0.038 
        Currently on insulin only 178 (100.0) 207 (99.0) 142 (88.8)  13 (37.1) 12 (16.0)  
        Currently on insulin and metformin 2 (1.0) 12 (7.5)  4 (11.4) 9 (12.0)  
        Currently on metformin only 6 (3.8)  17 (48.6) 42 (56.0)  
        No diabetes medication  1 (2.9) 12 (16.0)  
Laboratory measurements        
    (%) (means ± SD) 8.0 (1.2) 8.6 (1.9) 8.9 (2.0) 0.0002 7.1 (2.2) 8.5 (2.6) 0.009 
        Adjusted for duration (means ± SE) 8.2 (0.2) 8.6 (0.1) 8.7 (0.2) 0.042 7.3 (0.4) 8.4 (0.3) 0.043 
    Glycemic control [n (%)]    0.0002   0.023 
        Good (A1C < 8.0%) 64 (51.6) 75 (42.1) 48 (34.8)  26 (74.3) 37 (46.8)  
        Marginal (8.0 ≤ A1C < 9.5%) 45 (36.3) 48 (27.0) 40 (29.0)  4 (11.4) 15 (19.0)  
        Poor (A1C ≥ 9.5%) 15 (12.1) 55 (30.9) 50 (36.2)  5 (14.3) 27 (34.2)  
    GAD65 positive [n (% yes)] 68 (58.1) 102 (59.3) 80 (59.3) 0.98 5 (16.1) 14 (19.2) 0.71 
        Adjusted for duration (%) 52.7 58.1 66.3 0.15 18.2 17.5 0.93 
    Fasting C-peptide (means ± SD) 0.4 (0.3) 0.6 (0.7) 0.6 (0.9) 0.06 4.4 (2.4) 3.9 (2.6) 0.35 
    Mean fasting C-peptide adjusted for duration (means ± SE) 0.3 (0.1) 0.6 (0.1) 0.8 (0.1) <0.0001 4.2 (0.5) 4 (0.3) 0.69 
    LDL cholesterol (mg/dl) (means ± SD) 96.6 ± 22.5 96.2 ± 26.8 99.7 ± 26.1 0.51 104.4 ± 28.8 108.3 ± 3.5 0.59 
        Adjusted for duration (means ± SE) 98.9 ± 2.6 97.1 ± 2.0 96.9 ± 2.5 0.83 105.8 ± 6.0 107.7 ± 4.1 0.80 
    High LDL cholesterol (≥100 mg/dl) [n (% yes)] 42 (41.2) 58 (38.2) 58 (51.8) 0.078 18 (56.3) 38 (56.7) 0.97 
        Adjusted for duration (% yes) 43.5 39.0 48.8 0.33 57.4 56.2 0.91 
    Triglycerides (mg/dl) (geometric means ± SD) 50.1 ± 1.4 65.4 ± 1.6 91.4 ± 1.9 <0.0001 127.7 ± 1.7 159.9 ± 2.0 0.10 
        Adjusted for duration (geometric mean ± SE) 51.5 ± 1.1 66 ± 1.0 88.9 ± 1.1 <0.0001 128.1 ± 1.1 159.7 ± 1.1 0.13 
    High triglycerides (≥110 mg/dl) [n (% yes)] 3 (2.9) 21 (13.8) 38 (33.9) <0.0001 19 (59.4) 48 (71.6) 0.22 
        Adjusted for duration (% yes) 3.2 14.1 30.9 <0.0001 60.8 71.2 0.32 
    HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) (means ± SD) 55.3 ± 11.7 54 ± 11.7 50.1 ± 14.1 0.002 41.6 ± 8.6 40.5 ± 10.4 0.61 
        Adjusted for duration (means ± SE) 56.1 ± 1.2 54.2 ± 0.9 49.1 ± 1.1 0.0001 42.4 ± 1.7 40.2 ± 1.1 0.29 
    Low HDL cholesterol (≤40 mg/dl) [n (% yes)] 9 (7.4) 24 (13.5) 30 (21.7) 0.004 17 (50.0) 43 (55.1) 0.62 
        Adjusted for duration (% yes) 6.3 12.7 24.7 0.0006 47.5 56.2 0.41 
    Apolipoprotein B [median (interquartile range)] 70.0 (15.0) 70.0 (29.0) 80.0 (40.0) 0.008 84.0 (30) 97.5 (41.0) 0.45 
        Adjusted for duration [median (interquartile range)] 69.2 (4.4) 70.5 (5.3) 77.8 (7.3) 0.20 88.5 (1.6) 92.9 (4.7) 0.66 
    High apolipoprotein B (≥90 mg/dl) [n (%)] 11 (14.5) 27 (19.7) 44 (35.8) <0.0001 10 (47.6) 38 (61.3) 0.27 
        Adjusted for duration (% yes) 16.1 20.2 33.1 0.021 53.2 60.3 0.59 
*

Age at time of in-person visit.

P value for categorical variables using χ2 test for the association between variable levels and age-groups. P value for continuous variables using ANOVA for the overall effect of age-group. P value for adjusted variables using logistic regression (categorical variables) or linear regression (continuous variables) for the overall effect of age-group. When results were missing, descriptive information and P values are based on participants with complete data.

More than one response category allowed.

§

Family history includes parents, grandparents, and biological siblings with any form of diabetes.

High blood pressure defined as measured blood pressure (systolic or diastolic) ≥ age-, sex-, and height-specific 95th percentile.

Glycemic control categories based on American Diabetes Association recommendations.

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